Uk Manufactured E Liquid UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

E Cigarette Electronic Cigarette

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

  (Redirected from E-liquid) Aerosol (vapor) exhaled by an e-cigarette user.

The aerosol of electronic cigarettes is generated when the e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100–250 °C within a chamber.[1] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[2] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[3] In physics, a vapor is a substance in the gas phase whereas an aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid or both within a gas.[2] Vapor from an electronic cigarette simulates tobacco smoke, but the process of burning tobacco does not occur.[3] The aerosol is made-up of liquid sub-micron particles of condensed vapor,[4] which mostly consist of propylene glycol, glycerol, water, flavorings, nicotine, and other chemicals.[5] The various chemicals in the aerosol give rise to many issues concerning the safety of electronic cigarettes that have been much discussed.[2][5][6] After a puff, inhalation of the aerosol travels from the device into the mouth and lungs.[2] A 2014 review found that the particles emitted by e-cigarettes are comparable in size and number to particles in cigarette smoke, with the majority of them in the ultrafine range. The particles are of the ultrafine size which can go deep in the lungs and then into the systemic circulation. A 2014 review said local pulmonary toxicity may occur because metal nanoparticles can deposit in the lungs.[6] Others show that the quantities of metals emitted are minimal and permissible by medicinal standards.[5][7][8]

Various bottles of e-liquid.

After the aerosol is inhaled, it is exhaled.[2] Emissions from electronic cigarettes are not comparable to environmental pollution or cigarette smoke as their nature and chemical composition are completely different.[5] The particles are larger, with the mean size being 600 nm in inhaled aerosol and 300 nm in exhaled vapor.[9] Bystanders are exposed to these particles from exhaled e-cigarette vapor.[6] There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor exhaled by e-cigarette users can be inhaled by bystanders, particularly indoors, and have significant adverse effects.[10][11][12] Since e-cigarettes involve an aerosolization process, it is suggested that no meaningful amounts of carbon monoxide are emitted.[13] Thus, cardiocirculatory effects caused by carbon monoxide are not likely.[13] E-cigarette use by an expectant parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring.[14] E-cigarettes pose many safety concerns to children.[14] For example, indoor surfaces can accumulate nicotine where e-cigarettes were used, which may be inhaled by children, particularly youngsters, long after they were used.[14]

E-liquid is the mixture used in vapor products such as electronic cigarettes.[15] The main ingredients in the e-liquid usually are propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings.[16] However, there are e-liquids sold without propylene glycol, nicotine, or flavors.[15][17][18] The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin.[19] Propylene glycol and glycerine are used to produce the vapor while the flavoring provides the taste and aroma.[20] The flavorings may be natural or artificial.[9] About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014.[21] There are many e-liquids manufacturers in the USA and worldwide.[22] While there are currently no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid, the FDA has proposed regulations that were expected to be finalized in late 2015.[23] Industry standards have been created and published by the American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA).[24]

The vapor can contain nicotine and usually contains vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, flavors and aroma transporters.[8] The nicotine levels in the vapor varies either from puff-to-puff or among products of the same company.[2] A 2015 report commissioned by Public Health England concluded that e-cigarettes "release negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air".[25] E-cigarettes without nicotine are also available.[26] The vapor may also contain tiny amounts of toxicants, carcinogens, and heavy metals.[6][8] Contamination with various chemicals has been identified.[9] E-cigarette makers do not fully disclose information on the chemicals that can be released or synthesized during use.[2] The metals have been found in trace amounts in the vapor, some of them at higher amounts than in cigarette smoke.[5] The peak concentration of nicotine delivered by e-cigarette use is comparable to that produced by conventional cigarette smoking.[27]

An example of a commercial e-liquid and an advanced personal vaporizer.

E-liquid,[28] e-fluid, or e-juice[29] is the mixture used in vapor products including e-cigarettes.[15] E-Liquids come in many variations, including different nicotine strengths and many different flavors.[30] The main ingredients are propylene glycol, glycerine, and flavorings; and most often, nicotine in liquid form.[16] The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin, and the remaining 5% being flavorings and nicotine.[19] E-liquid can be made with or without nicotine, with >90% of e-liquids containing some level of nicotine.[31] The most regularly used base carrier chemical is propylene glycol with or without glycerin.[6] E-liquid containing glycerin and water made without propylene glycol are also sold.[15] Unless clearly stated, it is uncertain whether the nicotine used in e-liquid is manufactured using a United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade nicotine, a tobacco plant extract, tobacco dust or a synthetic nicotine.[32] Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers.[26] Although some e-juice is nicotine-free, surveys demonstrate that 97% of responders use products that contain nicotine.[17] A 2015 review suggests that 1% of users use liquid without nicotine.[33]

The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[34] An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[35] When the user pushes a button.[36] or inhales a pressure sensor activates the heating element that atomizes the liquid solution;[37] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100–250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[1] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[2] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[3] However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature where the user adjusts the vapor.[9] The vapor contains similar chemicals to the e-liquid which vary in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers.[2]

E-cigarettes produce particles, in the form of an aerosol.[2][38] In physics, a vapor is a substance in the gas phase whereas an aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid or both within a gas.[2] The aerosol is made-up of liquid sub-micron particles of condensed vapor,[38] which mostly consist of propylene glycol, glycerol, water, flavorings, nicotine, and other chemicals.[5] This aerosol that is produces resembles cigarette smoke.[2] After a puff, inhalation of the aerosol travels from the device into the mouth and lungs.[2]

A 2014 review found that the particles emitted by e-cigarettes are comparable in size and number to particles in cigarette smoke, with the majority of them in the ultrafine range. The ultrafine particles can go deep in the lungs and then into the systemic circulation. Pulmonary toxicity may occur because metal nanoparticles can deposit in the lungs.[6] The review also found that fine particles can be chemically intricate and not uniform, and what a particle is made of, the exact harmful elements, and the importance of the size of the particle is mostly unknown. They found that because these things are uncertain, it is not clear whether the ultrafine particles in e-cigarette vapor have health effects similar to those produced by traditional cigarettes.[6]

A 2014 WHO report found e-cigarettes release a lower level of particles than traditional cigarettes.[39] Comparable to a traditional cigarette, e-cigarette particles are tiny enough to enter the alveoli, enabling nicotine absorption.[29] E-cigarettes companies assert that the particulates produced by an e-cigarette are too tiny to be deposited in the alveoli.[40] Exactly what comprises the vapor varies in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers.[2] Different devices generate different particle sizes and cause different depositions in the respiratory tract, even from the same nicotine liquid.[41] Reports in the literature have shown respiratory and cardiovascular effects by these smaller size particles, suggesting a possible health concern.[42]

After the aerosol is inhaled, it is exhaled.[2] Emissions from electronic cigarettes are not comparable to environmental pollution or cigarette smoke as their nature and chemical composition are completely different.[5] The particles are larger, with the mean size being 600 nm in inhaled aerosol and 300 nm in exhaled vapor.[9] The exhaled aerosol particle concentration is 5 times lower from an e-cigarette than from a combustible tobacco cigarette.[43] The density of particles in the vapor is lower than in cigarette smoke by a factor of between 6 and 880 times lower.[5]

For particulate matter emissions, e-cigarettes slightly exceeded the WHO guidelines, but emissions were 15 times less than traditional cigarette use.[44] In January 2014, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease stated "Adverse health effects for exposed third parties (second-hand exposure) cannot be excluded because the use of electronic cigarettes leads to emission of fine and ultrafine inhalable liquid particles, nicotine and cancer-causing substances into indoor air."[45] The dense vapor consists of liquid sub-micron droplets.[38][dead link]

Since e-cigarettes have not been widely used long enough for evaluation, the long-term health effects from the second-hand vapor are not known.[6] There is insufficient data to determine the impact on public health from e-cigarettes.[46] The potential harm to bystanders from e-cigarettes is unknown.[47] This is because no long-term data is available.[8]

Since e-cigarettes do not burn (or contain) tobacco, no side-stream smoke or any cigarette smoke is produced.[6] Only what is exhaled by e-cigarettes users enters the surrounding air.[8] Exhaled vapor consists of nicotine and some other particles, primarily consisting of flavors, aroma transporters, glycerin and propylene glycol.[8] Bystanders are exposed to these particles from exhaled e-cigarette vapor.[6] A mixture of harmful substances, particularly nicotine, ultrafine particles, and volatile organic compounds can be exhaled into the air.[48] The liquid particles condenses into a viewable fog.[9] The vapor is in the air for a short time, with a half-life of about 10 seconds; traditional cigarette smoke is in the air 100 times longer.[9] This is because of fast revaporization at room temperature.[9]

There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor exhaled by e-cigarette users can be inhaled by bystanders, particularly indoors, and have significant adverse effects.[10][12] Since e-cigarettes involve an aerosolization process, it is suggested that no meaningful amounts of carbon monoxide are emitted.[13] Thus, cardiocirculatory effects caused by carbon monoxide are not likely.[13] However, in an experimental study, e-cigarettes increased levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surrounding air.[13]

E-cigarettes used in indoor environments can put at risk nonsmokers to elevated levels of nicotine and aerosol emissions.[43] Nonsmokers exposed to e-cigarette aerosol produced by a machine and pumped into a room were found to have detectable levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in their blood. The same study stated that 80% of nicotine is normally absorbed by the user, so these results may be higher than in actual second hand exposure.[6] In 2015 a report commissioned by Public Health England concluded that e-cigarettes "release negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air with no identified health risks to bystanders".[25]

A 2014 review of limited data concluded this vapor can cause indoor air pollution and is not just water vapor as is frequently stated in the advertising of e-cigarettes.[6] A 2014 practice guideline by NPS MedicineWise states, "Although data on health effects of passive vapour are currently lacking, the risks are argued to be small, but claims that e-cigarettes emit only water vapour are nevertheless incorrect. Serum cotinine levels (a metabolite of nicotine) have been found to be similar in bystanders exposed to either e-cigarette vapour or cigarette smoke."[49][50] The 2015 California Department of Public Health has reported that "Mainstream and second hand e-cigarette aerosol has been found to contain at least ten chemicals that are on California's Proposition 65 list of chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm."[51] However, it has been demonstrated that e-cigarettes causes nonusers to be exposed to nicotine but not to tobacco-related combustion toxicants.[10]

A no smoking or vaping sign from the US.

A white paper published in 2014 by the American Industrial Hygiene Association concluded e-cigarettes emit airborne contaminants that may be inhaled by the user and those nearby.[42] They urged indoors restrictions similar to smoking bans, until research has shown the aerosol has no risk of harm.[42] A 2014 review indicated that the levels of inhaled contaminants from the e-cigarette vapor are not of significant health concern for human exposures by the standards used in workplaces to ensure safety.[26] The use of e-cigarettes in a smoke-free area could expose non-users to toxins.[52] The effect on bystanders would likely be much less harmful than traditional cigarettes.[8]

2014 WHO report stated passive exposure was as a concern, indicating that current evidence is insufficient to determine whether the levels of exhaled vapor are safe to involuntarily exposed bystanders.[39] The report stated that "it is unknown if the increased exposure to toxicants and particles in exhaled aerosol will lead to an increased risk of disease and death among bystanders."[39] The British Medical Association (BMA) reported in 2013 that there are "concerns that the use of e-cigarettes could threaten the norm of not smoking in public places and workplaces."[53]

As of 2013[update], the only clinical study currently published evaluating the respiratory effects of passive vaping found no adverse effects were detected.[5] A 2014 review found it is safe to infer that their effects on bystanders are minimal in comparison to traditional cigarettes.[5] A E-cigarette vapor has notably fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke and is likely to pose less harm to users or bystanders.[6]

E-cigarette use by a parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring.[14] E-cigarettes pose many safety concerns to children.[14] For example, indoor surfaces can accumulate nicotine where e-cigarettes were used, which may be inhaled by children, particularly youngsters, long after they were used.[14] A policy statement by the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology has reported that "Third-hand exposure occurs when nicotine and other chemicals from second-hand aerosol deposit on surfaces, exposing people through touch, ingestion, and inhalation".[17] Public health England, looking at the available research said the amount of nicotine deposited was low and that an infant would have to lick 30 square meters to be exposed to 1 mg of nicotine.[25] The statement noted there are no published studies of third hand exposure from e-cigarettes, however initial data suggests that nicotine from e-cigarettes may stick to surfaces and would be hard to remove.[17]

The e-liquid is sold in bottles or pre-filled disposable cartridges, or as a kit for consumers to make their own e-juices.[54] Some vendors of e-liquids, offer options to change the amounts of flavorings or nicotine strengths, and build each bottle customized for the purchaser.[54] E-liquids are made with various tobacco, fruit, and other flavors,[6] as well as variable nicotine concentrations (including nicotine-free versions).[16] The standard notation "mg/ml" is often used on labels to denote nicotine concentration, and is sometimes shortened to "mg".[55] In surveys of regular e-cigarette users, the most popular e-liquids have a nicotine content of 18 mg/ml, and the preferred flavors were largely tobacco, mint and fruit.[8] A cartridge may contain 0 to 20 mg of nicotine.[48] EU regulations cap the concentration of nicotine in e-liquid at a maximum of 20 mg/mL.[29] A refill bottle can contain up to 1 g of nicotine.[48] Refill liquids are often sold in the size range from 15 to 30 mL.[56] One cartridge may typically last as long as one pack of cigarettes.[57] Some liquids without flavoring is also sold.[18] The flavorings may be natural or artificial.[9] There is even certified organic liquid.[58] About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014.[21] A user does not normally consume a whole cartridge in a single session.[59] Most e-liquids are produced by a few manufacturers in China, the US and Europe.[8] An e-cigarette user will usually obtain 300 to 500 puffs per mL of liquid.[56]

The two most common e-liquid bases are propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG).[60] Propylene glycol is tasteless and odorless, and therefore it doesn't affect the flavor of the e-liquid. It is known, however, to cause allergic reactions in some users, and in such case it is advised to stop the use immediately. Vegetable glycerin, on the other hand, is a lot thicker in consistency, and it doesn't cause allergic reactions. It also produces significantly more vapor, which has a slight sweet taste.[61][unreliable source?]

E-liquids are manufactured by many producers, both in the US and across the world.[22] First tier manufacturers use lab suits, gloves, hair covers, inside of certified clean rooms with air filtration similar to pharmaceutical-grade production areas.[22]

Standards for e-liquid manufacturing have been created by American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA), which is trade association dedicated to creating responsible and sustainable standards for the safe manufacturing of e-liquids used in vapor products.[62] AEMSA has published a comprehensive list standards and best known methods, which are openly available for use by any manufacturer of e-Liquids. The AEMSA standards cover nicotine, ingredients, sanitary manufacturing rooms, safety packaging, age restrictions, and labeling.[24]

There are no current governmental or US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid. The FDA has sought to regulate e-liquid through use of the Tobacco Control Act, passed into law in 2009. In April 2014, the FDA issued its "Deeming" proposals for public comment, which would cover e-liquids manufacturing. The Final Rule, (in final form) giving the FDA authority to regulate e-liquids was released on May 5th 2016.[63]

E Vape Electronic Cigarette

E-cigarette seller destroys €135,000 worth of nicotine liquid - Nicorex! NB - OPEN SUBTITLES!

 UK

Disassembled parts of a first generation e-cigarette. A. LED light cover B. battery (also houses circuitry) C. atomizer (heating element) D. cartridge (mouthpiece) Parts of a second generation e-cigarette. An electronic cigarette is a battery-powered vaporizer.[1] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] When the user pushes a button,[4] or (in some variations) activates a pressure sensor by inhaling, the heating element then atomizes the liquid solution[5] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[7] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[1] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] First generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[11] Second generation devices are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] Third generation devices include mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[10] The fourth generation includes Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[15] A later-generation box mod e-cigarette. Image courtesy of Ecigclick An e-cigarette is a handheld battery-powered vaporizer that simulates smoking, but without tobacco combustion.[1] Once the user inhales, the airflow activates the pressure sensor, and then the heating element atomizes the liquid solution.[5] Most devices have a manual push-button switch to turn them on or off.[16] E-cigarettes do not turn on by trying to "light" the device with a flame.[4] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature.[17] A glycerin-only liquid vaporizes at a higher temperature than a propylene glycol-glycerin liquid.[17] Rather than cigarette smoke, the user inhales an aerosol, commonly but inaccurately called vapor.[7] E-cigarettes do not create vapor between puffs.[18] Vaping is different than tobacco smoking, but there are some similarities with their behavioral habits, including the hand-to-mouth action and a vapor that looks like cigarette smoke.[1] E-cigarettes provide a flavor and feel similar to smoking.[1] A noticeable difference between the traditional cigarette and the e-cigarette is sense of touch.[1] A traditional cigarette is smooth and light but an e-cigarette is rigid, cold and slightly heavier.[1] Since e-cigarettes are more complex than traditional cigarettes, a learning curve is needed to use them correctly.[19] Compared to traditional cigarettes, the general e-cigarette puff time is much longer, and requires a more forceful suction than a regular cigarette.[20] The volume of vapor created by e-cigarette devices in 2012 declined with vaping.[1] Thus, to create the same volume of vapor increasing puff force is needed.[1] Later-generation e-cigarettes with concentrated nicotine liquids may deliver nicotine at levels similar to traditional cigarettes.[21] Many e-cigarette versions include a voltage potentiometer to adjust the volume of vapor created.[4] The amount of vapor produced is controlled by the power from the battery, which has led some users to adjust their devices to increase battery power.[6] An ordinary cigarette compared to a "cigalike" e-cigarette E-cigarettes are usually approximately cylindrical, with many variations: pen-styles, tank-styles etc.[22] Some e-cigarettes look like traditional cigarettes, but others do not.[19] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] The only exception to this are mechanical e-cigarettes (mods) which contain no electronics and the circuit is closed by using a mechanical action switch.[23] E-cigarettes are sold in disposable or reusable variants.[8] Disposable e-cigarettes are discarded once the liquid in the cartridge is used up, while rechargeable e-cigarettes may be used indefinitely.[24] A disposable e-cigarette lasts to around 400 puffs.[25] Reusable e-cigarettes are refilled by hand or exchanged for pre-filled cartridges, and general cleaning is required.[4] A wide range of disposable and reusable e-cigarettes exist.[26] Disposable e-cigarettes are offered for a few dollars, and higher-priced reusable e-cigarettes involve an up-front investment for a starter kit.[19] Some e-cigarettes have a LED at the tip to resemble the glow of burning tobacco.[21] The LED may also indicate the battery status.[1] The LED is not generally used in personal vaporizers or mods.[2] First-generation e-cigarettes usually simulated smoking implements, such as cigarettes or cigars, in their use and appearance.[10] Later-generation e-cigarettes often called mods, PVs (personal vaporizer) or APVs (advanced personal vaporizer) have an increased nicotine-dispersal performance,[10] house higher capacity batteries, and come in various shapes such as metal tubes and boxes.[27] They contain silver, steel, metals, ceramics, plastics, fibers, aluminum, rubber and spume, and lithium batteries.[28] A growing subclass of vapers called cloud-chasers configure their atomizers to produce large amounts of vapor by using low-resistance heating coils.[29] This practice is known as cloud-chasing.[30] Many e-cigarettes are made of standardized replaceable parts that are interchangeable between brands.[31] A wide array of component combinations exists.[32] Many e-cigarettes are sold with a USB charger.[33] E-cigarettes that resemble pens or USB memory sticks are also sold for those who may want to use the device unobtrusively.[34] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] Various types of e-cigarettes. First-generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] The three parts of a cigalike e-cigarette initially were a cartridge, an atomizer, and a battery.[35] A cigalike e-cigarette currently contains a cartomizer (cartridge atomizer), which is connected to a battery.[35] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[35] They may be a single unit comprising a battery, coil and filling saturated with e-juice in a single tube to be used and discarded after the battery or e-liquid is depleted.[10] They may also be a reusable device with a battery and cartridge called a cartomizer.[12] The cartomizer cartridge can be separated from the battery so the battery can be charged and the empty cartomizer replaced when the e-juice runs out.[10] The battery section may contain an electronic airflow sensor triggered by drawing breath through the device.[12] Other models use a power button that must be held during operation.[12] An LED in the power button or on the end of the device may also show when the device is vaporizing.[36] Charging is commonly accomplished with a USB charger that attaches to the battery.[37] Some manufacturers also have a cigarette pack-shaped portable charging case (PCC), which contains a larger battery capable of recharging the individual e-cigarette batteries.[38] Reusable devices can come in a kit that contains a battery, a charger, and at least one cartridge.[38] Varying nicotine concentrations are available and nicotine delivery to the user also varies based on different cartomizers, e-juice mixtures, and power supplied by the battery.[22] These manufacturing differences affect the way e-cigarettes convert the liquid solution to an aerosol, and thus the levels of ingredients, that are delivered to the user and the surrounding air for any given liquid.[22] First-generation e-cigarettes use lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] Second-generation PV. Second generation devices tend to be used by people with more experience.[12] They are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] They usually consist of two sections, basically a tank and a separate battery. Their batteries have higher capacity, and are not removable.[10] Being rechargeable, they use a USB charger that attaches to the battery with a threaded connector. Some batteries have a "passthrough" feature so they can be used even while they are charging.[40][41] Second-generation e-cigarettes commonly use a tank or a "clearomizer".[12] Clearomizer tanks are meant to be refilled with e-juice, while cartomizers are not.[10] Because they're refillable and the battery is rechargeable, their cost of operation is lower.[10] Hovever, they can also use cartomizers, which are pre-filled only.[10] Some cheaper battery sections use a microphone that detects the turbulence of the air passing through to activate the device when the user inhales.[42] Other batteries like the eGo style can use an integrated circuit, as well as a button for manual activation. The LED shows battery status.[42] The power button can also switch off the battery so it is not activated accidentally.[43] Second generation e-cigarettes may have lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] However, adjustable-voltage devices can be set between 3 V and 6 V.[44] Third-generation PV. The third-generation includes mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[45][46] Battery sections are commonly called "mods," referencing their past when user modification was common.[10] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] They are commonly cylindrical or box-shaped, and typical housing materials are wood, aluminium, stainless steel, or brass.[47] A larger "box mod" can hold bigger and sometimes multiple batteries.[47] Mechanical mods and variable devices use larger batteries than those found in previous generations.[48] Common battery sizes used are 18350, 18490, 18500 and 18650.[49] The battery is often removable,[46] so it can be changed when depleted. The battery must be removed and charged externally.[46] Variable devices permit setting wattage, voltage, or both.[40][46] These often have a USB connector for recharging; some can be used while charging, called a "passthrough" feature.[40][50] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] The power section may include additional options such as screen readout, support for a wide range of internal batteries, and compatibility with different types of atomizers.[12] Third-generation devices can have rebuildable atomizers with different wicking materials.[10][12] These rebuildables use handmade coils that can be installed in the atomizer to increase vapor production.[48] Hardware in this generation is sometimes modified to increase power or flavor.[51] The larger battery sections used also allow larger tanks to be attached that can hold more e-liquid.[47] Recent devices can go up to 8 V, which can heat the e-liquid significantly more than earlier generations.[39] A fourth-generation e-cigarette became available in the U.S. in 2014.[21] Fourth-generation e-cigarettes can be made from stainless steel and pyrex glass, and contain very little plastics.[13] Included in the fourth-generation are Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] An e-cigarette atomizer with the coil (heating element) in view. An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and a wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] Along with a battery and e-liquid the atomizer is the main component of every personal vaporizer.[12] A small length of resistance wire is coiled around the wicking material and connected to the integrated circuit, or in the case of mechanical devices, the atomizer is connected directly to the battery through either a 510, 808, or ego threaded connector.[52] 510 being the most common.[52] When activated, the resistance wire coil heats up and vaporizes the liquid, which is then inhaled by the user.[53] The electrical resistance of the coil, the voltage output of the device, the airflow of the atomizer and the efficiency of the wick all affect the vapor coming from the atomizer.[54] They also affect the vapor quantity or volume yielded.[54] Atomizer coils made of kanthal usually have resistances that vary from 0.4Ω (ohms) to 2.8Ω.[54] Coils of lower ohms have increased vapor production but could risk fire and dangerous battery failures if the user is not knowledgeable enough about electrical principles and how they relate to battery safety.[55] Wicking materials vary from one atomizer to another.[56] "Rebuildable" or "do it yourself" atomizers can use silica, cotton, rayon, porous ceramic, hemp, bamboo yarn, oxidized stainless steel mesh and even wire rope cables as wicking materials.[56] A 45mm length, extra-long cartomizer. The cartomizer was invented in 2007, integrating the heating coil into the liquid chamber.[57] A "cartomizer" (a portmanteau of cartridge and atomizer.[58]) or "carto" consists of an atomizer surrounded by a liquid-soaked poly-foam that acts as an e-liquid holder.[3] They can have up to 3 coils and each coil will increase vapor production.[3] The cartomizer is usually discarded when the e-liquid starts to taste burnt, which usually happens when the e-cigarette is activated with a dry coil or when the cartomizer gets consistently flooded (gurgling) because of sedimentation of the wick.[3] Most cartomizers are refillable even if not advertised as such.[3][59] Cartomizers can be used on their own or in conjunction with a tank that allows more e-liquid capacity.[3] The portmanteau word "cartotank" has been coined for this.[60] When used in a tank, the cartomizer is inserted in a plastic, glass or metal tube and holes or slots have to be punched on the sides of the cartomizer so liquid can reach the coil.[3] eGo style e-cigarette with a top-coil clearomizer. Silica fibers are hanging down freely inside of the tank, drawing e-liquid by capillary action to the coil that is located directly under the mouthpiece. The clearomizer was invented in 2009 that originated from the cartomizer design.[57] It contained the wicking material, an e-liquid chamber, and an atomizer coil within a single clear component.[57] This allows the user to monitor the liquid level in the device.[57] Clearomizers or "clearos", are like cartotanks, in that an atomizer is inserted into the tank.[61] There are different wicking systems used inside clearomizers.[3] Some rely on gravity to bring the e-liquid to the wick and coil assembly (bottom coil clearomizers for example) and others rely on capillary action or to some degree the user agitating the e-liquid while handling the clearomizer (top coil clearomizers).[3][62] The coil and wicks are typically inside a prefabricated assembly or "head" that is replaceable by the user.[63] Clearomizers are made with adjustable air flow control.[64] Tanks can be plastic or borosilicate glass.[65] Some flavors of e-juice have been known to damage plastic clearomizer tanks.[65] Box mod e-cigarette fitted with a rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA). A view of the RDA deck showing the wicks and coils, juice is dripped into a hopper where the wicks rest as well as atop the coil assembly. A rebuildable atomizer or an RBA is an atomizer that allows the user to assemble or "build" the wick and coil themselves instead of replacing them with off-the-shelf atomizer "heads".[10] They are generally considered advanced devices.[66] They also allow the user to build atomizers at any desired electrical resistance.[10] These atomizers are divided into two main categories; rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) and rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs).[67] Rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) have a tank to hold liquid that is absorbed by the wick.[68] They can hold up to 4ml of e-liquid.[69] The tank can be either plastic, glass, or metal.[65] One form of tank atomizers was the Genesis style atomizers.[68] They can use ceramic wicks, stainless steel mesh or rope for wicking material.[68] The steel wick must be oxidized to prevent arcing of the coil.[68] Another type is the Sub ohm tank.[69] These tanks have rebuildabe or RBA kits.[69] They can also use coilheads of 0.2ohm 0.4hom and 0.5ohm.[69] These coilheads can have stainless steel coils.[70] Rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs) are atomizers where the e-juice is dripped directly onto the coil and wick.[71] The common nicotine strength of e-liquids used in RDA's is 3 mg and 6 mg.[71] Liquids used in RDA's tend to have more vegetable glycerin.[71] They typically consist only of an atomizer "building deck", commonly with three posts with holes drilled in them, which can accept one or more coils.[51] The user needs to manually keep the atomizer wet by dripping liquid on the bare wick and coil assembly, hence their name.[71] Kanthal wire is commonly used in both RDA's and RTA's.[71] They can also use nickel wire or titanium wire for temperature control.[71] Variable devices are variable wattage, variable voltage or both.[40][46] Variable power and/or variable voltage have a electronic chip allowing the user to adjust the power applied to the heating element.[12][46] The amount of power applied to the coil affects the heat produced, thus changing the vapor output.[12][32] Greater heat from the coil increases vapor production.[32] Variable power devices monitor the coil's resistance and automatically adjust the voltage to apply the user-specified level of power to the coil.[72] Recent devices can go up to 8 V.[39] They are often rectangular but can also be cylindrical.[47] They usually have a screen to show information such as voltage, power, and resistance of the coil.[73] To adjust the settings, the user presses buttons or rotates a dial to turn the power up or down.[32] Some of these devices include additional settings through their menu system such as: atomizer resistance meter, remaining battery voltage, puff counter, and power-off or lock.[74] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[4] Smaller devices contain smaller batteries and are easier to carry but typically require more repeated recharging.[4] Some e-cigarettes use a long lasting rechargeable battery, a non-rechargeable battery or a replaceable battery that is either rechargeable or non-rechargeable for power.[26] Some companies offer portable chargeable cases to recharge e-cigarettes.[26] Nickel-cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal-hydride (NiMh), lithium ion (Li-ion), alkaline and lithium polymer (Li-poly), and lithium manganese (LiMn) batteries have been used for the e-cigarettes power source.[26] PV with variable and regulated power offering battery protection. Temperature control devices allow the user to set the temperature.[71] There is a predictable change to the resistance of a coil when it is heated.[75] The resistance changes are different for different types of wires, and must have a high temperature coefficient of resistance.[75] Temperature control is done by detecting that resistance change to estimate the temperature and adjusting the voltage to the coil to match that estimate.[76] Nickel, titanium, NiFe alloys, and certain grades of stainless steel are common materials used for wire in temperature control.[71] The most common wire used, kanthal, cannot be used because it has a stable resistance regardless of the coil temperature.[75] Nickel was the first wire used because of it has the highest coefficient of the common metals.[75] Mechanical PV with a rebuildable atomizer. The temperature can be adjusted in Celsius or Fahrenheit.[77] The DNA40 and SX350J are common control boards used in temperature control devices.[78] Temperature control can stop dry wicks from burning, or e-liquid overheating.[78] Mechanical PVs or mechanical "mods", often called "mechs", are devices without integrated circuits, electronic battery protection, or voltage regulation.[46] They are activated by a switch.[71] They rely on the natural voltage output of the battery and the metal that the mod is made of often is used as part of the circuit itself.[79] The term "mod" was originally used instead of "modification".[10] Users would modify existing hardware to get better performance, and as an alternative to the e-cigarettes that looked like traditional cigarettes.[32] Users would also modify other unrelated items like flashlights as battery compartments to power atomizers.[32][47] The word mod is often used to describe most personal vaporizers.[3] Mechanical PVs have no power regulation and are unprotected.[71] Because of this ensuring that the battery does not over-discharge and that the resistance of the atomizer requires amperage within the safety limits of the battery is the responsibility of the user.[79]


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK

Uk Vape Brands UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

Electronic Cigarette E Cig

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

Disassembled parts of a first generation e-cigarette.
A. LED light cover
B. battery (also houses circuitry)
C. atomizer (heating element)
D. cartridge (mouthpiece) Parts of a second generation e-cigarette.

An electronic cigarette is a battery-powered vaporizer.[1] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] When the user pushes a button,[4] or (in some variations) activates a pressure sensor by inhaling, the heating element then atomizes the liquid solution[5] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[7] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[1]

There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] First generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[11] Second generation devices are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] Third generation devices include mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[10] The fourth generation includes Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[15]

A later-generation box mod e-cigarette. Image courtesy of Ecigclick

An e-cigarette is a handheld battery-powered vaporizer that simulates smoking, but without tobacco combustion.[1] Once the user inhales, the airflow activates the pressure sensor, and then the heating element atomizes the liquid solution.[5] Most devices have a manual push-button switch to turn them on or off.[16] E-cigarettes do not turn on by trying to "light" the device with a flame.[4] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature.[17] A glycerin-only liquid vaporizes at a higher temperature than a propylene glycol-glycerin liquid.[17] Rather than cigarette smoke, the user inhales an aerosol, commonly but inaccurately called vapor.[7] E-cigarettes do not create vapor between puffs.[18]

Vaping is different than tobacco smoking, but there are some similarities with their behavioral habits, including the hand-to-mouth action and a vapor that looks like cigarette smoke.[1] E-cigarettes provide a flavor and feel similar to smoking.[1] A noticeable difference between the traditional cigarette and the e-cigarette is sense of touch.[1] A traditional cigarette is smooth and light but an e-cigarette is rigid, cold and slightly heavier.[1] Since e-cigarettes are more complex than traditional cigarettes, a learning curve is needed to use them correctly.[19]

Compared to traditional cigarettes, the general e-cigarette puff time is much longer, and requires a more forceful suction than a regular cigarette.[20] The volume of vapor created by e-cigarette devices in 2012 declined with vaping.[1] Thus, to create the same volume of vapor increasing puff force is needed.[1] Later-generation e-cigarettes with concentrated nicotine liquids may deliver nicotine at levels similar to traditional cigarettes.[21] Many e-cigarette versions include a voltage potentiometer to adjust the volume of vapor created.[4] The amount of vapor produced is controlled by the power from the battery, which has led some users to adjust their devices to increase battery power.[6]

An ordinary cigarette compared to a "cigalike" e-cigarette

E-cigarettes are usually approximately cylindrical, with many variations: pen-styles, tank-styles etc.[22] Some e-cigarettes look like traditional cigarettes, but others do not.[19] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8]

The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] The only exception to this are mechanical e-cigarettes (mods) which contain no electronics and the circuit is closed by using a mechanical action switch.[23] E-cigarettes are sold in disposable or reusable variants.[8] Disposable e-cigarettes are discarded once the liquid in the cartridge is used up, while rechargeable e-cigarettes may be used indefinitely.[24] A disposable e-cigarette lasts to around 400 puffs.[25] Reusable e-cigarettes are refilled by hand or exchanged for pre-filled cartridges, and general cleaning is required.[4] A wide range of disposable and reusable e-cigarettes exist.[26] Disposable e-cigarettes are offered for a few dollars, and higher-priced reusable e-cigarettes involve an up-front investment for a starter kit.[19] Some e-cigarettes have a LED at the tip to resemble the glow of burning tobacco.[21] The LED may also indicate the battery status.[1] The LED is not generally used in personal vaporizers or mods.[2]

First-generation e-cigarettes usually simulated smoking implements, such as cigarettes or cigars, in their use and appearance.[10] Later-generation e-cigarettes often called mods, PVs (personal vaporizer) or APVs (advanced personal vaporizer) have an increased nicotine-dispersal performance,[10] house higher capacity batteries, and come in various shapes such as metal tubes and boxes.[27] They contain silver, steel, metals, ceramics, plastics, fibers, aluminum, rubber and spume, and lithium batteries.[28] A growing subclass of vapers called cloud-chasers configure their atomizers to produce large amounts of vapor by using low-resistance heating coils.[29] This practice is known as cloud-chasing.[30] Many e-cigarettes are made of standardized replaceable parts that are interchangeable between brands.[31] A wide array of component combinations exists.[32] Many e-cigarettes are sold with a USB charger.[33] E-cigarettes that resemble pens or USB memory sticks are also sold for those who may want to use the device unobtrusively.[34]

As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9]

Various types of e-cigarettes.

First-generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] The three parts of a cigalike e-cigarette initially were a cartridge, an atomizer, and a battery.[35] A cigalike e-cigarette currently contains a cartomizer (cartridge atomizer), which is connected to a battery.[35] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[35]

They may be a single unit comprising a battery, coil and filling saturated with e-juice in a single tube to be used and discarded after the battery or e-liquid is depleted.[10] They may also be a reusable device with a battery and cartridge called a cartomizer.[12] The cartomizer cartridge can be separated from the battery so the battery can be charged and the empty cartomizer replaced when the e-juice runs out.[10]

The battery section may contain an electronic airflow sensor triggered by drawing breath through the device.[12] Other models use a power button that must be held during operation.[12] An LED in the power button or on the end of the device may also show when the device is vaporizing.[36]

Charging is commonly accomplished with a USB charger that attaches to the battery.[37] Some manufacturers also have a cigarette pack-shaped portable charging case (PCC), which contains a larger battery capable of recharging the individual e-cigarette batteries.[38] Reusable devices can come in a kit that contains a battery, a charger, and at least one cartridge.[38] Varying nicotine concentrations are available and nicotine delivery to the user also varies based on different cartomizers, e-juice mixtures, and power supplied by the battery.[22]

These manufacturing differences affect the way e-cigarettes convert the liquid solution to an aerosol, and thus the levels of ingredients, that are delivered to the user and the surrounding air for any given liquid.[22] First-generation e-cigarettes use lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39]

Second-generation PV.

Second generation devices tend to be used by people with more experience.[12] They are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] They usually consist of two sections, basically a tank and a separate battery. Their batteries have higher capacity, and are not removable.[10] Being rechargeable, they use a USB charger that attaches to the battery with a threaded connector. Some batteries have a "passthrough" feature so they can be used even while they are charging.[40][41]

Second-generation e-cigarettes commonly use a tank or a "clearomizer".[12] Clearomizer tanks are meant to be refilled with e-juice, while cartomizers are not.[10] Because they're refillable and the battery is rechargeable, their cost of operation is lower.[10] Hovever, they can also use cartomizers, which are pre-filled only.[10]

Some cheaper battery sections use a microphone that detects the turbulence of the air passing through to activate the device when the user inhales.[42] Other batteries like the eGo style can use an integrated circuit, as well as a button for manual activation. The LED shows battery status.[42] The power button can also switch off the battery so it is not activated accidentally.[43] Second generation e-cigarettes may have lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] However, adjustable-voltage devices can be set between 3 V and 6 V.[44]

Third-generation PV.

The third-generation includes mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[45][46] Battery sections are commonly called "mods," referencing their past when user modification was common.[10] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] They are commonly cylindrical or box-shaped, and typical housing materials are wood, aluminium, stainless steel, or brass.[47] A larger "box mod" can hold bigger and sometimes multiple batteries.[47]

Mechanical mods and variable devices use larger batteries than those found in previous generations.[48] Common battery sizes used are 18350, 18490, 18500 and 18650.[49] The battery is often removable,[46] so it can be changed when depleted. The battery must be removed and charged externally.[46]

Variable devices permit setting wattage, voltage, or both.[40][46] These often have a USB connector for recharging; some can be used while charging, called a "passthrough" feature.[40][50] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46]

The power section may include additional options such as screen readout, support for a wide range of internal batteries, and compatibility with different types of atomizers.[12] Third-generation devices can have rebuildable atomizers with different wicking materials.[10][12] These rebuildables use handmade coils that can be installed in the atomizer to increase vapor production.[48] Hardware in this generation is sometimes modified to increase power or flavor.[51]

The larger battery sections used also allow larger tanks to be attached that can hold more e-liquid.[47] Recent devices can go up to 8 V, which can heat the e-liquid significantly more than earlier generations.[39]

A fourth-generation e-cigarette became available in the U.S. in 2014.[21] Fourth-generation e-cigarettes can be made from stainless steel and pyrex glass, and contain very little plastics.[13] Included in the fourth-generation are Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13]

An e-cigarette atomizer with the coil (heating element) in view.

An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and a wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] Along with a battery and e-liquid the atomizer is the main component of every personal vaporizer.[12] A small length of resistance wire is coiled around the wicking material and connected to the integrated circuit, or in the case of mechanical devices, the atomizer is connected directly to the battery through either a 510, 808, or ego threaded connector.[52] 510 being the most common.[52] When activated, the resistance wire coil heats up and vaporizes the liquid, which is then inhaled by the user.[53]

The electrical resistance of the coil, the voltage output of the device, the airflow of the atomizer and the efficiency of the wick all affect the vapor coming from the atomizer.[54] They also affect the vapor quantity or volume yielded.[54]

Atomizer coils made of kanthal usually have resistances that vary from 0.4Ω (ohms) to 2.8Ω.[54] Coils of lower ohms have increased vapor production but could risk fire and dangerous battery failures if the user is not knowledgeable enough about electrical principles and how they relate to battery safety.[55]

Wicking materials vary from one atomizer to another.[56] "Rebuildable" or "do it yourself" atomizers can use silica, cotton, rayon, porous ceramic, hemp, bamboo yarn, oxidized stainless steel mesh and even wire rope cables as wicking materials.[56]

A 45mm length, extra-long cartomizer.

The cartomizer was invented in 2007, integrating the heating coil into the liquid chamber.[57] A "cartomizer" (a portmanteau of cartridge and atomizer.[58]) or "carto" consists of an atomizer surrounded by a liquid-soaked poly-foam that acts as an e-liquid holder.[3] They can have up to 3 coils and each coil will increase vapor production.[3] The cartomizer is usually discarded when the e-liquid starts to taste burnt, which usually happens when the e-cigarette is activated with a dry coil or when the cartomizer gets consistently flooded (gurgling) because of sedimentation of the wick.[3] Most cartomizers are refillable even if not advertised as such.[3][59]

Cartomizers can be used on their own or in conjunction with a tank that allows more e-liquid capacity.[3] The portmanteau word "cartotank" has been coined for this.[60] When used in a tank, the cartomizer is inserted in a plastic, glass or metal tube and holes or slots have to be punched on the sides of the cartomizer so liquid can reach the coil.[3]

eGo style e-cigarette with a top-coil clearomizer. Silica fibers are hanging down freely inside of the tank, drawing e-liquid by capillary action to the coil that is located directly under the mouthpiece.

The clearomizer was invented in 2009 that originated from the cartomizer design.[57] It contained the wicking material, an e-liquid chamber, and an atomizer coil within a single clear component.[57] This allows the user to monitor the liquid level in the device.[57] Clearomizers or "clearos", are like cartotanks, in that an atomizer is inserted into the tank.[61] There are different wicking systems used inside clearomizers.[3] Some rely on gravity to bring the e-liquid to the wick and coil assembly (bottom coil clearomizers for example) and others rely on capillary action or to some degree the user agitating the e-liquid while handling the clearomizer (top coil clearomizers).[3][62] The coil and wicks are typically inside a prefabricated assembly or "head" that is replaceable by the user.[63]

Clearomizers are made with adjustable air flow control.[64] Tanks can be plastic or borosilicate glass.[65] Some flavors of e-juice have been known to damage plastic clearomizer tanks.[65]

Box mod e-cigarette fitted with a rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA). A view of the RDA deck showing the wicks and coils, juice is dripped into a hopper where the wicks rest as well as atop the coil assembly.

A rebuildable atomizer or an RBA is an atomizer that allows the user to assemble or "build" the wick and coil themselves instead of replacing them with off-the-shelf atomizer "heads".[10] They are generally considered advanced devices.[66] They also allow the user to build atomizers at any desired electrical resistance.[10]

These atomizers are divided into two main categories; rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) and rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs).[67]

Rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) have a tank to hold liquid that is absorbed by the wick.[68] They can hold up to 4ml of e-liquid.[69] The tank can be either plastic, glass, or metal.[65] One form of tank atomizers was the Genesis style atomizers.[68] They can use ceramic wicks, stainless steel mesh or rope for wicking material.[68] The steel wick must be oxidized to prevent arcing of the coil.[68] Another type is the Sub ohm tank.[69] These tanks have rebuildabe or RBA kits.[69] They can also use coilheads of 0.2ohm 0.4hom and 0.5ohm.[69] These coilheads can have stainless steel coils.[70]

Rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs) are atomizers where the e-juice is dripped directly onto the coil and wick.[71] The common nicotine strength of e-liquids used in RDA's is 3 mg and 6 mg.[71] Liquids used in RDA's tend to have more vegetable glycerin.[71] They typically consist only of an atomizer "building deck", commonly with three posts with holes drilled in them, which can accept one or more coils.[51] The user needs to manually keep the atomizer wet by dripping liquid on the bare wick and coil assembly, hence their name.[71]

Kanthal wire is commonly used in both RDA's and RTA's.[71] They can also use nickel wire or titanium wire for temperature control.[71]

Variable devices are variable wattage, variable voltage or both.[40][46] Variable power and/or variable voltage have a electronic chip allowing the user to adjust the power applied to the heating element.[12][46] The amount of power applied to the coil affects the heat produced, thus changing the vapor output.[12][32] Greater heat from the coil increases vapor production.[32] Variable power devices monitor the coil's resistance and automatically adjust the voltage to apply the user-specified level of power to the coil.[72] Recent devices can go up to 8 V.[39]

They are often rectangular but can also be cylindrical.[47] They usually have a screen to show information such as voltage, power, and resistance of the coil.[73] To adjust the settings, the user presses buttons or rotates a dial to turn the power up or down.[32] Some of these devices include additional settings through their menu system such as: atomizer resistance meter, remaining battery voltage, puff counter, and power-off or lock.[74] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[4] Smaller devices contain smaller batteries and are easier to carry but typically require more repeated recharging.[4] Some e-cigarettes use a long lasting rechargeable battery, a non-rechargeable battery or a replaceable battery that is either rechargeable or non-rechargeable for power.[26] Some companies offer portable chargeable cases to recharge e-cigarettes.[26] Nickel-cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal-hydride (NiMh), lithium ion (Li-ion), alkaline and lithium polymer (Li-poly), and lithium manganese (LiMn) batteries have been used for the e-cigarettes power source.[26]

PV with variable and regulated power offering battery protection.

Temperature control devices allow the user to set the temperature.[71] There is a predictable change to the resistance of a coil when it is heated.[75] The resistance changes are different for different types of wires, and must have a high temperature coefficient of resistance.[75] Temperature control is done by detecting that resistance change to estimate the temperature and adjusting the voltage to the coil to match that estimate.[76]

Nickel, titanium, NiFe alloys, and certain grades of stainless steel are common materials used for wire in temperature control.[71] The most common wire used, kanthal, cannot be used because it has a stable resistance regardless of the coil temperature.[75] Nickel was the first wire used because of it has the highest coefficient of the common metals.[75]

Mechanical PV with a rebuildable atomizer.

The temperature can be adjusted in Celsius or Fahrenheit.[77] The DNA40 and SX350J are common control boards used in temperature control devices.[78] Temperature control can stop dry wicks from burning, or e-liquid overheating.[78]

Mechanical PVs or mechanical "mods", often called "mechs", are devices without integrated circuits, electronic battery protection, or voltage regulation.[46] They are activated by a switch.[71] They rely on the natural voltage output of the battery and the metal that the mod is made of often is used as part of the circuit itself.[79]

The term "mod" was originally used instead of "modification".[10] Users would modify existing hardware to get better performance, and as an alternative to the e-cigarettes that looked like traditional cigarettes.[32] Users would also modify other unrelated items like flashlights as battery compartments to power atomizers.[32][47] The word mod is often used to describe most personal vaporizers.[3]

Mechanical PVs have no power regulation and are unprotected.[71] Because of this ensuring that the battery does not over-discharge and that the resistance of the atomizer requires amperage within the safety limits of the battery is the responsibility of the user.[79]

Highest Rated Electronic Cigarette

Electronic cigarette aerosol and e-liquid

 UK

Disassembled parts of a first generation e-cigarette. A. LED light cover B. battery (also houses circuitry) C. atomizer (heating element) D. cartridge (mouthpiece) Parts of a second generation e-cigarette. An electronic cigarette is a battery-powered vaporizer.[1] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] When the user pushes a button,[4] or (in some variations) activates a pressure sensor by inhaling, the heating element then atomizes the liquid solution[5] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[7] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[1] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] First generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[11] Second generation devices are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] Third generation devices include mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[10] The fourth generation includes Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[15] A later-generation box mod e-cigarette. Image courtesy of Ecigclick An e-cigarette is a handheld battery-powered vaporizer that simulates smoking, but without tobacco combustion.[1] Once the user inhales, the airflow activates the pressure sensor, and then the heating element atomizes the liquid solution.[5] Most devices have a manual push-button switch to turn them on or off.[16] E-cigarettes do not turn on by trying to "light" the device with a flame.[4] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature.[17] A glycerin-only liquid vaporizes at a higher temperature than a propylene glycol-glycerin liquid.[17] Rather than cigarette smoke, the user inhales an aerosol, commonly but inaccurately called vapor.[7] E-cigarettes do not create vapor between puffs.[18] Vaping is different than tobacco smoking, but there are some similarities with their behavioral habits, including the hand-to-mouth action and a vapor that looks like cigarette smoke.[1] E-cigarettes provide a flavor and feel similar to smoking.[1] A noticeable difference between the traditional cigarette and the e-cigarette is sense of touch.[1] A traditional cigarette is smooth and light but an e-cigarette is rigid, cold and slightly heavier.[1] Since e-cigarettes are more complex than traditional cigarettes, a learning curve is needed to use them correctly.[19] Compared to traditional cigarettes, the general e-cigarette puff time is much longer, and requires a more forceful suction than a regular cigarette.[20] The volume of vapor created by e-cigarette devices in 2012 declined with vaping.[1] Thus, to create the same volume of vapor increasing puff force is needed.[1] Later-generation e-cigarettes with concentrated nicotine liquids may deliver nicotine at levels similar to traditional cigarettes.[21] Many e-cigarette versions include a voltage potentiometer to adjust the volume of vapor created.[4] The amount of vapor produced is controlled by the power from the battery, which has led some users to adjust their devices to increase battery power.[6] An ordinary cigarette compared to a "cigalike" e-cigarette E-cigarettes are usually approximately cylindrical, with many variations: pen-styles, tank-styles etc.[22] Some e-cigarettes look like traditional cigarettes, but others do not.[19] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] The only exception to this are mechanical e-cigarettes (mods) which contain no electronics and the circuit is closed by using a mechanical action switch.[23] E-cigarettes are sold in disposable or reusable variants.[8] Disposable e-cigarettes are discarded once the liquid in the cartridge is used up, while rechargeable e-cigarettes may be used indefinitely.[24] A disposable e-cigarette lasts to around 400 puffs.[25] Reusable e-cigarettes are refilled by hand or exchanged for pre-filled cartridges, and general cleaning is required.[4] A wide range of disposable and reusable e-cigarettes exist.[26] Disposable e-cigarettes are offered for a few dollars, and higher-priced reusable e-cigarettes involve an up-front investment for a starter kit.[19] Some e-cigarettes have a LED at the tip to resemble the glow of burning tobacco.[21] The LED may also indicate the battery status.[1] The LED is not generally used in personal vaporizers or mods.[2] First-generation e-cigarettes usually simulated smoking implements, such as cigarettes or cigars, in their use and appearance.[10] Later-generation e-cigarettes often called mods, PVs (personal vaporizer) or APVs (advanced personal vaporizer) have an increased nicotine-dispersal performance,[10] house higher capacity batteries, and come in various shapes such as metal tubes and boxes.[27] They contain silver, steel, metals, ceramics, plastics, fibers, aluminum, rubber and spume, and lithium batteries.[28] A growing subclass of vapers called cloud-chasers configure their atomizers to produce large amounts of vapor by using low-resistance heating coils.[29] This practice is known as cloud-chasing.[30] Many e-cigarettes are made of standardized replaceable parts that are interchangeable between brands.[31] A wide array of component combinations exists.[32] Many e-cigarettes are sold with a USB charger.[33] E-cigarettes that resemble pens or USB memory sticks are also sold for those who may want to use the device unobtrusively.[34] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] Various types of e-cigarettes. First-generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] The three parts of a cigalike e-cigarette initially were a cartridge, an atomizer, and a battery.[35] A cigalike e-cigarette currently contains a cartomizer (cartridge atomizer), which is connected to a battery.[35] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[35] They may be a single unit comprising a battery, coil and filling saturated with e-juice in a single tube to be used and discarded after the battery or e-liquid is depleted.[10] They may also be a reusable device with a battery and cartridge called a cartomizer.[12] The cartomizer cartridge can be separated from the battery so the battery can be charged and the empty cartomizer replaced when the e-juice runs out.[10] The battery section may contain an electronic airflow sensor triggered by drawing breath through the device.[12] Other models use a power button that must be held during operation.[12] An LED in the power button or on the end of the device may also show when the device is vaporizing.[36] Charging is commonly accomplished with a USB charger that attaches to the battery.[37] Some manufacturers also have a cigarette pack-shaped portable charging case (PCC), which contains a larger battery capable of recharging the individual e-cigarette batteries.[38] Reusable devices can come in a kit that contains a battery, a charger, and at least one cartridge.[38] Varying nicotine concentrations are available and nicotine delivery to the user also varies based on different cartomizers, e-juice mixtures, and power supplied by the battery.[22] These manufacturing differences affect the way e-cigarettes convert the liquid solution to an aerosol, and thus the levels of ingredients, that are delivered to the user and the surrounding air for any given liquid.[22] First-generation e-cigarettes use lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] Second-generation PV. Second generation devices tend to be used by people with more experience.[12] They are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] They usually consist of two sections, basically a tank and a separate battery. Their batteries have higher capacity, and are not removable.[10] Being rechargeable, they use a USB charger that attaches to the battery with a threaded connector. Some batteries have a "passthrough" feature so they can be used even while they are charging.[40][41] Second-generation e-cigarettes commonly use a tank or a "clearomizer".[12] Clearomizer tanks are meant to be refilled with e-juice, while cartomizers are not.[10] Because they're refillable and the battery is rechargeable, their cost of operation is lower.[10] Hovever, they can also use cartomizers, which are pre-filled only.[10] Some cheaper battery sections use a microphone that detects the turbulence of the air passing through to activate the device when the user inhales.[42] Other batteries like the eGo style can use an integrated circuit, as well as a button for manual activation. The LED shows battery status.[42] The power button can also switch off the battery so it is not activated accidentally.[43] Second generation e-cigarettes may have lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] However, adjustable-voltage devices can be set between 3 V and 6 V.[44] Third-generation PV. The third-generation includes mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[45][46] Battery sections are commonly called "mods," referencing their past when user modification was common.[10] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] They are commonly cylindrical or box-shaped, and typical housing materials are wood, aluminium, stainless steel, or brass.[47] A larger "box mod" can hold bigger and sometimes multiple batteries.[47] Mechanical mods and variable devices use larger batteries than those found in previous generations.[48] Common battery sizes used are 18350, 18490, 18500 and 18650.[49] The battery is often removable,[46] so it can be changed when depleted. The battery must be removed and charged externally.[46] Variable devices permit setting wattage, voltage, or both.[40][46] These often have a USB connector for recharging; some can be used while charging, called a "passthrough" feature.[40][50] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] The power section may include additional options such as screen readout, support for a wide range of internal batteries, and compatibility with different types of atomizers.[12] Third-generation devices can have rebuildable atomizers with different wicking materials.[10][12] These rebuildables use handmade coils that can be installed in the atomizer to increase vapor production.[48] Hardware in this generation is sometimes modified to increase power or flavor.[51] The larger battery sections used also allow larger tanks to be attached that can hold more e-liquid.[47] Recent devices can go up to 8 V, which can heat the e-liquid significantly more than earlier generations.[39] A fourth-generation e-cigarette became available in the U.S. in 2014.[21] Fourth-generation e-cigarettes can be made from stainless steel and pyrex glass, and contain very little plastics.[13] Included in the fourth-generation are Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] An e-cigarette atomizer with the coil (heating element) in view. An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and a wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] Along with a battery and e-liquid the atomizer is the main component of every personal vaporizer.[12] A small length of resistance wire is coiled around the wicking material and connected to the integrated circuit, or in the case of mechanical devices, the atomizer is connected directly to the battery through either a 510, 808, or ego threaded connector.[52] 510 being the most common.[52] When activated, the resistance wire coil heats up and vaporizes the liquid, which is then inhaled by the user.[53] The electrical resistance of the coil, the voltage output of the device, the airflow of the atomizer and the efficiency of the wick all affect the vapor coming from the atomizer.[54] They also affect the vapor quantity or volume yielded.[54] Atomizer coils made of kanthal usually have resistances that vary from 0.4Ω (ohms) to 2.8Ω.[54] Coils of lower ohms have increased vapor production but could risk fire and dangerous battery failures if the user is not knowledgeable enough about electrical principles and how they relate to battery safety.[55] Wicking materials vary from one atomizer to another.[56] "Rebuildable" or "do it yourself" atomizers can use silica, cotton, rayon, porous ceramic, hemp, bamboo yarn, oxidized stainless steel mesh and even wire rope cables as wicking materials.[56] A 45mm length, extra-long cartomizer. The cartomizer was invented in 2007, integrating the heating coil into the liquid chamber.[57] A "cartomizer" (a portmanteau of cartridge and atomizer.[58]) or "carto" consists of an atomizer surrounded by a liquid-soaked poly-foam that acts as an e-liquid holder.[3] They can have up to 3 coils and each coil will increase vapor production.[3] The cartomizer is usually discarded when the e-liquid starts to taste burnt, which usually happens when the e-cigarette is activated with a dry coil or when the cartomizer gets consistently flooded (gurgling) because of sedimentation of the wick.[3] Most cartomizers are refillable even if not advertised as such.[3][59] Cartomizers can be used on their own or in conjunction with a tank that allows more e-liquid capacity.[3] The portmanteau word "cartotank" has been coined for this.[60] When used in a tank, the cartomizer is inserted in a plastic, glass or metal tube and holes or slots have to be punched on the sides of the cartomizer so liquid can reach the coil.[3] eGo style e-cigarette with a top-coil clearomizer. Silica fibers are hanging down freely inside of the tank, drawing e-liquid by capillary action to the coil that is located directly under the mouthpiece. The clearomizer was invented in 2009 that originated from the cartomizer design.[57] It contained the wicking material, an e-liquid chamber, and an atomizer coil within a single clear component.[57] This allows the user to monitor the liquid level in the device.[57] Clearomizers or "clearos", are like cartotanks, in that an atomizer is inserted into the tank.[61] There are different wicking systems used inside clearomizers.[3] Some rely on gravity to bring the e-liquid to the wick and coil assembly (bottom coil clearomizers for example) and others rely on capillary action or to some degree the user agitating the e-liquid while handling the clearomizer (top coil clearomizers).[3][62] The coil and wicks are typically inside a prefabricated assembly or "head" that is replaceable by the user.[63] Clearomizers are made with adjustable air flow control.[64] Tanks can be plastic or borosilicate glass.[65] Some flavors of e-juice have been known to damage plastic clearomizer tanks.[65] Box mod e-cigarette fitted with a rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA). A view of the RDA deck showing the wicks and coils, juice is dripped into a hopper where the wicks rest as well as atop the coil assembly. A rebuildable atomizer or an RBA is an atomizer that allows the user to assemble or "build" the wick and coil themselves instead of replacing them with off-the-shelf atomizer "heads".[10] They are generally considered advanced devices.[66] They also allow the user to build atomizers at any desired electrical resistance.[10] These atomizers are divided into two main categories; rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) and rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs).[67] Rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) have a tank to hold liquid that is absorbed by the wick.[68] They can hold up to 4ml of e-liquid.[69] The tank can be either plastic, glass, or metal.[65] One form of tank atomizers was the Genesis style atomizers.[68] They can use ceramic wicks, stainless steel mesh or rope for wicking material.[68] The steel wick must be oxidized to prevent arcing of the coil.[68] Another type is the Sub ohm tank.[69] These tanks have rebuildabe or RBA kits.[69] They can also use coilheads of 0.2ohm 0.4hom and 0.5ohm.[69] These coilheads can have stainless steel coils.[70] Rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs) are atomizers where the e-juice is dripped directly onto the coil and wick.[71] The common nicotine strength of e-liquids used in RDA's is 3 mg and 6 mg.[71] Liquids used in RDA's tend to have more vegetable glycerin.[71] They typically consist only of an atomizer "building deck", commonly with three posts with holes drilled in them, which can accept one or more coils.[51] The user needs to manually keep the atomizer wet by dripping liquid on the bare wick and coil assembly, hence their name.[71] Kanthal wire is commonly used in both RDA's and RTA's.[71] They can also use nickel wire or titanium wire for temperature control.[71] Variable devices are variable wattage, variable voltage or both.[40][46] Variable power and/or variable voltage have a electronic chip allowing the user to adjust the power applied to the heating element.[12][46] The amount of power applied to the coil affects the heat produced, thus changing the vapor output.[12][32] Greater heat from the coil increases vapor production.[32] Variable power devices monitor the coil's resistance and automatically adjust the voltage to apply the user-specified level of power to the coil.[72] Recent devices can go up to 8 V.[39] They are often rectangular but can also be cylindrical.[47] They usually have a screen to show information such as voltage, power, and resistance of the coil.[73] To adjust the settings, the user presses buttons or rotates a dial to turn the power up or down.[32] Some of these devices include additional settings through their menu system such as: atomizer resistance meter, remaining battery voltage, puff counter, and power-off or lock.[74] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[4] Smaller devices contain smaller batteries and are easier to carry but typically require more repeated recharging.[4] Some e-cigarettes use a long lasting rechargeable battery, a non-rechargeable battery or a replaceable battery that is either rechargeable or non-rechargeable for power.[26] Some companies offer portable chargeable cases to recharge e-cigarettes.[26] Nickel-cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal-hydride (NiMh), lithium ion (Li-ion), alkaline and lithium polymer (Li-poly), and lithium manganese (LiMn) batteries have been used for the e-cigarettes power source.[26] PV with variable and regulated power offering battery protection. Temperature control devices allow the user to set the temperature.[71] There is a predictable change to the resistance of a coil when it is heated.[75] The resistance changes are different for different types of wires, and must have a high temperature coefficient of resistance.[75] Temperature control is done by detecting that resistance change to estimate the temperature and adjusting the voltage to the coil to match that estimate.[76] Nickel, titanium, NiFe alloys, and certain grades of stainless steel are common materials used for wire in temperature control.[71] The most common wire used, kanthal, cannot be used because it has a stable resistance regardless of the coil temperature.[75] Nickel was the first wire used because of it has the highest coefficient of the common metals.[75] Mechanical PV with a rebuildable atomizer. The temperature can be adjusted in Celsius or Fahrenheit.[77] The DNA40 and SX350J are common control boards used in temperature control devices.[78] Temperature control can stop dry wicks from burning, or e-liquid overheating.[78] Mechanical PVs or mechanical "mods", often called "mechs", are devices without integrated circuits, electronic battery protection, or voltage regulation.[46] They are activated by a switch.[71] They rely on the natural voltage output of the battery and the metal that the mod is made of often is used as part of the circuit itself.[79] The term "mod" was originally used instead of "modification".[10] Users would modify existing hardware to get better performance, and as an alternative to the e-cigarettes that looked like traditional cigarettes.[32] Users would also modify other unrelated items like flashlights as battery compartments to power atomizers.[32][47] The word mod is often used to describe most personal vaporizers.[3] Mechanical PVs have no power regulation and are unprotected.[71] Because of this ensuring that the battery does not over-discharge and that the resistance of the atomizer requires amperage within the safety limits of the battery is the responsibility of the user.[79]


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK

Uk Best E Cigarette UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

Electronic Cigarette

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use electronic cigarettes? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

Additionally, they're being marketed to children.

Do E-cigs Impact Society?

Are electronic cigarettes safe to use in public?

Many countries, states, cities, companies, bars and restaurants, and other organizations are banning the use of electronic cigarettes. There are a variety of reasons for their ban.

In 'Drugs And Society' by Glen R. Hanson, Peter J. Venturelli, Annette E. Fleckenstein, the implications the use of drugs has on society is explored in detail. The findings are quite fascinating.


De-icing your lungs?

Many articles about e-cigarettes will focus on the legality of their use and sale, their addictiveness, and the demographics who uses them. What few articles mention though, is what the ingredients in electronic cigarettes are and why you may not want them in your body.

Propylene glycol is basically plastic. Actually it's an additive for manufacturing plastic. The single largest use of PG is for the production of unsaturated polyester resins. It is also used as a humectant (an additive that keeps something moist), and as a preservative for food and tobacco. Mmm, yummy.

Propylene glycol has similar thermal properties to ethylene glycol in that it can lower the freezing point of water when added to it. As a result, propylene glycol is often used as aircraft de-icing fluid, according to Steve Ritter's article What's That Stuff?" on the C&EN website.

Another fun fact: disclosure of which chemicals are in any given electronic cigarette are often not made available by manufacturers or retailers. The most recent information regarding the health effects on humans of acute exposure to propylene glycol by inhalation is from 2002. Please find this information made available by the EPA at the bottom of this article.

Formaldehyde in Cigarettes; Nicotine could Kill a Child

You are probably not a doctor (although, you might be), and you probably rely on the advice of experts for medical information and health recommendations. Using your best judgement, do you think that electronic cigarettes are safe to use? Would you recommend using an electronic cigarette to your friends and family? How about your kids?

Take a look at this video from reports in France. It says that e-cigarettes contain level of formaldehyde near that of tobacco cigarettes. What? I do not know if that information is true, but if it is, it's not good!

The reports urge people to understand that electronic cigarettes are not healthy. Furthermore, the reports say that some models of e-cigarette do not have protective safety caps even though they have enough nicotine to kill a child. That is a liability. Yikes!


Quick facts


  • The molecular formula for propylene glycol is C3H8O2
  • It is a clear and colorless liquid and is non-corrosive
  • It is unknown whether or not is adversely affects human health
  • It is a main ingredient in electronic cigarettes and windshield washer liquid
  • Using it, you might look cool to some people (but they are pathetic losers)
  • Plastic boogers – your snot turns white and is now made of plastic

Ready for the formula? It's CH3CHOHCH2OH

The molecular formula for propylene glycol is C3H8O2. It is a clear and colourless liquid and is non-corrosive.

C3H8O2 can accumulate in your body from the use of shampoo, deodorant, moisturisers and creams, pain medication and a host of food products. So there's probably already enough in there without the use of e-cigs.

E-cigarettes offer you the opportunity to pay money to suck PG directly into the center of your body.


What Should You Do About It?

At best, e-cigarettes are neutral for your health and at worst they are detrimental to your health. How bad for you are they?

You'll need good luck if you are currently using an electronic cigarette! Because the health effects are largely unknown, using an e-cig is a gamble and you'll need all the luck you can get.

Enjoy!

Propylene Glycol Reference from the EPA

It looks like a few people have looked into it before. It's surprising there's not a lot of available data as to the effects of inhalation on humans. Shocking!

Check out this Propylene Glycol Reference List from the EPA:


Support: [] - Acute Toxicity to Daphnids (Daphnia Magna) under Static Conditions, with Cover Letter Dated 8/28/96 (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #89960000203S . 1996.
Code: 8

Methoxypropanol, dipropylene glycol methyl ether. S.Hirzel Verlag, P.O.Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1997.vii, 142p.Bibl.ref. 1997.
Code: 8

A 2-Year Vapor Inhalation Oncogenicity Study & Evaluation of Hepatic Cellular Proliferation & P450 Enzyme Induction in B6c3f1 Mice W/Cover Letter Dated 06/02/99 (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86990000051S . 1999.
Code: 9

2-Year Vapor Inhl Chronic/Oncogenicity Study & Evaluation of Hepatic & Renal Cellular Proliferation, P450 Enzyme Induction & Protein Droplet Nephropathy W/Cover Letter Dated 060299. EPA/OTS; Doc #86990000050 . 1999.
Code: 9

Initial Submission: Letter from Ciba Specialty Chems Inc to Usepa Re Acute Toxicity Studies of Alcopol 0 70pg, Collafix Pp2, & Cfr 5651/Magnafloc 1697, W/Attchmts & Dated 12/23/98. EPA/OTS; Doc #88990000073 . 1999.
Code: 9

Comparative Metabolism and Disposition of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether and Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether in Male Rats with Attachments. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001230 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether: Inhalation Teratology Study in Rats and Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001233 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether: Inhalation Teratology Probe Study in Rats and Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001232 . 2000.
Code: 9

Evaluation of Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether in an Vitro Chromosomal Aberration Assay Utilizing Chinese Hamster Ovary (Cho) Cells (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001243S . 2000.
Code: 9

Evaluation of Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether in the Ames Salmonella/Mammalian-Microsome Bacterial Mutagenicity Assay (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001244S . 2000.
Code: 9

Nonlinear Kinetics of Inhaled Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether in Fischer 344 Rats Following Single and Repeated Exposures (Final Report) with Attachments. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001164 . 2000.
Code: 9

Analysis of Dowanol Cx, a Mixture of Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether & Propylene Glycol Isobutyl Ether in the Aquatic Environment (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001114S . 2000.
Code: 8

Evaluation of the Acute Dermal Toxicity of Dowanol-Pnb in Rat with Attachments (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001250S . 2000.
Code: 9

Evaluation of the Acute Oral Toxicity of Dowanol-Pnb in the Rat (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001246S . 2000.
Code: 9

Results of Range Finding Toxicological Test on Three Samples of 4-Tert Octyl Phenol. EPA/OTS; Doc #40-5462011 . 2000.
Code: 8

Blood Pharmacokinetics of Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether and Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate in Male F-344 Rats after Dermal Application, with Cover Letter Dated 2/10/2000. EPA/OTS; Doc #FYI-OTS-0600-1385 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether: A 13-Week Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats and Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001229 . 2000.
Code: 9

Warning for oral solution. AIDS Patient Care STDS 14(9):519-20. 2000.
Code: 8

Odor Evaluation Study on Dowtherm 209 Coolant (Dowanol Pm; Monomethyl Ether of Propylene Glycol) in Humans. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001220 . 2000.
Code: 8

Assessment of the Oral Toxicity, Including the Haemolytic Activity of Dowanol-Pnb in the Rat: 14-Day Study with Attachments. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001253 . 2000.
Code: 9

Chronic Skin Absorption of Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether (33b) and Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether (50b) in Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001219 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether: An Acute Vapor Inhalation Study in Fischer 344 Rats (Final Report) with Attachments (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001245S . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (Pgme): 21-Day Dermal Study in New Zealand White Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001162 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether: 2-Week Vapor Inhalation Study in Rats and Mice (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001235S . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether: Two-Week Vapor Inhalation Study with Fischer 344 Rats (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001260S . 2000.
Code: 9

Subchronic (13-Wk) Dermal Toxicity Study with Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether in Rats (Final Report). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001257 . 2000.
Code: 9

Alfons, K. and Engstrom, S. Drug compatibility with the sponge phases formed in monoolein, water, and propylene glycol or poly(ethylene glycol). J Pharm Sci 87(12):1527-30. 1998.
Code: 8

Altaras, N. E. and Cameron, D. C. Metabolic engineering of a 1,2-propanediol pathway in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(3):1180-5. 1999.
Code: 8

Altaras, N. E. and Cameron, D. C. Enhanced production of (R)-1,2-propanediol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Prog 16(6):940-6. 2000.
Code: 8

Altaras, N. E., Etzel, M. R., and Cameron, D. C. Conversion of sugars to 1,2-propanediol by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum HG-8. Biotechnol Prog 17(1):52-6. 2001.
Code: 8

Andrews, A. H. and Wilkinson, J. Recombinant bovine somatotropin and propylene glycol following glucose injection in treating pregnancy toxaemia. Large Animal Practice; 19 (6).1998.31-33. 1998.
Code: 8

Anon. BIBRA Toxicity Profile of propylene glycol. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 19, 1996 . 1996.
Code: 7

Anon. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 1-Chloro-2-Propanol (Technical Grade) (CAS No. 127-00-4) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Drinking Water Studies). Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 06, 1999 . 1998.
Code: 8

Anonymous. Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals No. 33, 1,1-Dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) CAS No. 306-83-2. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Brussels, 55 pages, 92 references, 1996 . 1996.
Code: 8

Anonymous. Propylenglykol (Aug 1995). TA:Beratergremium fuer umweltrelevante Altstoffe (BUA) PG:25 p YR:1996 IP: VI:166 . 1996.
Code: 7

Anonymous. Dipropylene glycol (December 1993). TA:Beratergremium fuer umweltrelevante Altstoffe (BUA) PG:70 p YR:1996 IP: VI:162 . 1996.
Code: 8

Anonymous. Reproductive toxicology. Propylene glycol. Environ Health Perspect 1997 Feb;105 Suppl 1:231-2 . 1997.
Code: 9

Anonymous. Reproductive toxicology. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether. Environ Health Perspect 1997 Feb;105 Suppl 1:233-4 . 1997.
Code: 8

Anonymous. Toxicological profile for Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol. TA:Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry U.S.Public Health Service PG:249 p YR:1997 IP: VI. 1997.
Code: 7

Anonymous. Reproductive toxicology. 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol. Environ Health Perspect 1997 Feb;105 Suppl 1:271-2 . 1997.
Code: 8

Anonymous. Final report on the safety assessment of Yarrow (achillea millefolium) extract. TA:Int J Toxicol PG:79-84 YR:2001 IP:Suppl 2 VI:20 . 2001.
Code: 8

Anonymous. Final report on the safety assessment of Calendula officinalis extract and calendula officinalis. TA:Int J Toxicol PG:13-20 YR:2001 IP:Suppl 2 VI:20 . 2001.
Code: 8

Anonymous. Final report on the safety assessment of Arnica montana extract and arnica montana. TA:Int J Toxicol PG:1-11 YR:2001 IP:Suppl.2 VI:20 . 2001.
Code: 9

Anonymous. Final report on the safety assessment of Hypericum perforatum extract and hypericum perforatum oil. TA:Int J Toxicol PG:31-9 YR:2001 IP:Suppl 2 VI:20 . 2001.
Code: 8

Aoshima, H. Effects of alcohols and food additives on glutamate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes: Specificity in the inhibition of the receptors. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry; 60 (3).1996.434-438. 1996.
Code: 8

Aouizerate, P., Dume, L., and Astier, A. Ethylene glycol poisoning: Presence of propylene glycol traces, and research of analytic interference due to propylene glycol, in the colorimetric determination of glycolic acid. Journal De Pharmacie Clinique; 15 (Spec.Issue).1996.40-42. 1996.
Code: 8

Appleton, R. E. The new antiepileptic drugs [published erratum appears in Arch Dis Child 1997 Jan;76(1):81]. Arch Dis Child 1996 Sep;75(3):256-62 . 1996.
Code: 8

Araki, Y., Andoh, A., Fujiyama, Y., Takizawa, J., Takizawa, W., and Bamba, T. Short-term oral administration of a product derived from a probiotic, Clostridium butyricum induced no pathological effects in rats. Int J Mol Med 9(2):173-7. 2002.
Code: 8

Arbour, R. B. Propylene glycol toxicity related to high-dose lorazepam infusion: case report and discussion. Am J Crit Care 8(1):499-506. 1999.
Code: 9

Arellano, A., Santoyo, S., Martn, C., and Ygartua, P. Surfactant effects on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of diclofenac sodium. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 23(2):307-12. 1998.
Code: 8

Arellano, A., Santoyo, S., Martin, C., and Ygartua, P. Influence of propylene glycol and isopropyl myristate on the in vitro percutaneous penetration of diclofenac sodium from carbopol gels. Eur J Pharm Sci 7(2):129-35. 1999.
Code: 8

Baker, R. C. and Kramer, R. E. Cytotoxicity of short-chain alcohols. Cho, A.K.(Ed.).Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vol.39.Vii+470p.Annual Reviews Inc.: Palo Alto, California, USA.Isbn 0-8243-0439-X; 39 (0).1999.127-150. 1999.
Code: 8

Barber, J. T., Thomas, D. A., Ensley, H. E., and Yatsu, L. Y. Duckweed Diols and Death. Plant Biology '97: 1997 Annual Meetings of the American Society of Plant Physiologists and the Canadian Society of Plant Physiologists, Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists and the Australian Society of Plant Physiologists, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, August 2-6, 1997.Plant Physiology (Rockville); 114 (3 Suppl.).1997.124. 1997.
Code: 8

Barratt, M. D. QSARS for the eye irritation potential of neutral organic chemicals. Toxicology in Vitro; 11 (1-2).1997.1-8. 1997.
Code: 8

Basketter, D. A., Chamberlain, M., Griffiths, H. A., Rowson, M., Whittle, E., and York, M. The classification of skin irritants by human patch test. Food and Chemical Toxicology; 35 (8).1997.845-852. 1997.
Code: 8

Basketter, D. A., Gerberick, G. F., and Kimber, I. Strategies for identifying false positive responses in predictive skin sensitization tests. Food and Chemical Toxicology; 36 (4).1998.327-333. 1998.
Code: 8

Bausmith, D. S. and Neufeld, R. D. Soil biodegradation of propylene glycol based aircraft deicing fluids. Water Environment Research; 71 (4).1999.459-464. 1999.
Code: 8

Bennett, G. N. and San, K. Y. Microbial formation, biotechnological production and applications of 1,2-propanediol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 55(1):1-9. 2001.
Code: 8

Bjerre, C., Bjork, E., and Camber, O. Bioavailability of the sedative propiomazine after nasal administration in rats. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 144 ISS Nov 29 1996, P217-224, (REF 22) . 1996.
Code: 8

Blake, D. A., Whikehart, D. R., Yu, H., Vogel, T., and Roberts, D. D. Common cryopreservation media deplete corneal endothelial cell plasma membrane Na+,K+ ATPase activity. Curr Eye Res 15(3):263-71. 1996.
Code: 8

Bobik, T. A., Xu, Y., Jeter, R. M., Otto, K. E., and Roth, J. R. Propanediol utilization genes (pdu) of Salmonella typhimurium: three genes for the propanediol dehydratase. J Bacteriol 179(21):6633-9. 1997.
Code: 8

Bobik, T. A., Havemann, G. D., Busch, R. J., Williams, D. S., and Aldrich, H. C. The propanediol utilization (pdu) operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 includes genes necessary for formation of polyhedral organelles involved in coenzyme B(12)-dependent 1, 2-propanediol degradation. J Bacteriol 181(19):5967-75. 1999.
Code: 8

Bolon, B., Bucci, T. J., Warbritton, A. R., Chen, J. J., Mattison, D. R., and Heindel, J. J. Differential follicle counts as a screen for chemically induced ovarian toxicity in mice: Results from continuous breeding bioassays. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology; 39 (1).1997.1-10. 1997.
Code: 8

Boman, A. and Maibach, H. Influence of Evaporation and Repeated Exposure on the Percutaneous Absorption of Organic Solvents. Elsner, P., Et Al.(Ed.).Current Problems in Dermatology (Basel), Vol.25.Prevention of Contact Dermatitis; International Conference on the Prevention of Contact Dermatitis, Zurich, Switzerland, October 4-7, 1995.X+226p.S.Karger Ag: Basel, Switzerland; New York, New York, USA.Isbn 3-8055-6311-6.; 25 (0).1996.57-66. 1996.
Code: 8

Brayden, D., Creed, E., O'Connell, A., Leipold, H., Agarwal, R., and Leone-Bay, A. Heparin absorption across the intestine: effects of sodium N-[8-(2- hydroxybenzoyl)amino]caprylate in rat in situ intestinal instillations and in Caco-2 monolayers. Pharm Res 14(12):1772-9. 1997.
Code: 8

Bremmer, D. R., Trower, S. L., Bertics, S. J., Besong, S. A., Bernabucci, U., and Grummer, R. R. Etiology of fatty liver in dairy cattle: effects of nutritional and hormonal status on hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. J Dairy Sci 83(10):2239-51. 2000.
Code: 5

Breslin, W. J., Cieszlak, F. S., Zablotny, C. L., Corley, R. A., Verschuuren, H. G., and Yano, B. L. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of inhaled dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME) in rabbits and rats. Occup Hyg 1996;2:161-70 . 1996.
Code: 8

Bruyas, J. F., Martins-Ferreira, C., Fieni, F., and Tainturier, D. The effect of propanediol on the morphology of fresh and frozen equine embryos. Equine Vet J Suppl (25):80-4. 1997.
Code: 8

Burkhart, J., Piacitelli, C., Schwegler-Berry, D., and Jones, W. Environmental study of nylon flocking process. JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PART A; 57 (1).1999.1-23.AB - BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS.Environmental measurements for a variety of gas, particulate, and microbiological agents have been made in order to characterize exposures associated with the nylon flocking process.Of all agents measured, particulate is the predominant exposure.Levels of total particulate ranged from 0.1 to 240 mg/m3 ( x = 11.4 mg/m3).Average respirable particulate was 2.2 mg/m3, ranging from 0.5 to 39.9 mg/m3.Highest levels of particulates were found in the flocking room, and direct reading dust measuremen veral of which were linked directly to the process.Of special interest were elongated respirable particles, which by microscopic analysis, complemented with melting-point determination, were found to be shreds of nylon. 1999.
Code: 8

Cameron, D. C., Altaras, N. E., Hoffman, M. L., and Shaw, A. J. Metabolic engineering of propanediol pathways. Biotechnol Prog 14(1):116-25. 1998.
Code: 8

Carney, E. W., Crissman, J. W., Liberacki, A. B., Clements, C. M., and Breslin, W. J. Assessment of adult and neonatal reproductive parameters in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether vapors for two generations. Toxicol Sci 1999 Aug;50(2):249-58 . 1999.
Code: 8

Carney, E. W. and Johnson, K. A. Comparative developmental toxicity of the glycol ether metabolites, methoxyacetic acid and methoxypropionic acid. Teratology 2000 Jun;61(6):454 . 2000.
Code: 8

Chapin, R. E., Sloane, R. A., and Haseman, J. K. The relationships among reproductive endpoints in Swiss mice, using the reproductive assessment by Continuous Breeding database. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1997 Aug;38(2):129-42 . 1997.
Code: 8

Chapin, R. E. and Sloane, R. A. Reproductive assessment by continuous breeding: evolving study design and summaries of ninety studies. Environ Health Perspect 1997 Feb;105 Suppl 1:199-205 . 1997.
Code: 8

Chicu, S. A. and Berking, S. Interference with metamorphosis induction in the marine cnidaria Hydractinia echinata (hydrozoa): A structure-activity relationship analysis of lower alcohols, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, thiophenes, tributyl tin and crude oil. Chemosphere; 34 (8).1997.1851-1866. 1997.
Code: 8

Chou C-H, S. J., Holler, J., and De Rosa, C. T. Minimal risk levels (MRLs) for hazardous substances. Journal of Clean Technology Environmental Toxicology and Occupational Medicine; 7 (1).1998.1-24. 1998.
Code: 8

Christensen, J. O., Grummer, R. R., Rasmussen, F. E., and Bertics, S. J. Effect of method of delivery of propylene glycol on plasma metabolites of feed-restricted cattle. J Dairy Sci 80(3):563-8. 1997.
Code: 8

Cicolella, A. [Evaluation of risks of glycol ethers for the reproductive health]. Sante Publique 1997 Jun;9(2):157-83 . 1997.
Code: 8

Colin, T., Bories, A., and Moulin, G. Inhibition of Clostridium butyricum by 1,3-propanediol and diols during glycerol fermentation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54(2):201-5. 2000.
Code: 8

Cook, G., Papich, M. G., Roberts, M. C., and Bowman, K. F. Pharmacokinetics of cisapride in horses after intravenous and rectal administration. Am J Vet Res 58(12):1427-30. 1997.
Code: 8

Corley, R. A., Crissman, J. W., Redmond, J. M., McGuirk, R. J., Cieszlak, F. S., and Stott, W. T. Adaptive Metabolic and Pathologic Changes following Chronic Inhalation of Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether in Rats and Mice. Occupational Hygiene, Vol.2, Nos.1-6, pages 319-328, 24 references, 1996 AB - The temporal relationships between propylene-glycol-monomethyl-ether (107982) (PGME) induced metabolic and morphological changes in rats and mice which have been chronically exposed to up to 3,000 parts per million (ppm) of PGME vapors were characterized.B6C3F1-mice and F344-rats were exposed to 300, 1,000, or 3,000ppm for 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, for up to 2 years.Results indicated that there is potential for adaptive biochemical and cellular changes in response to chemical exposure to modify the toxicity of PGME in rats and mice.Nearly all inhaled PGME was absorbed, resulting in high systemic levels of PGME.These levels may result in central nervous system depression and the clinically observable sedation of exposed animals.A disruption in male rats was noted in the processing of alpha2micro-globulin resulting in mild degenerative effects in renal tubule epithelial cells.The pronounced sedation of rats and mice exposed to 3,000ppm resolved by the second week of exposure.The induction of O-dealkylase activity in these animals suggests an increase in the potential of metabolized PGME via its major metabolic route to propylene-glycol and then to carbon-dioxide.Exposed animals may also have effectively enhanced PGME metabolism by increasing the number of hepatocytes in response to PGME exposure resulting in the increase in liver weights.Clearly defined, treatment related renal effects were only observed in male rats.The authors conclude that high concentrations of PGME cause an adaptive hepatic response in both sexes of rats and mice that is partially reversed in rats. 1996.
Code: 8

Cornwell, P. A., Barry, B. W., Bouwstra, J. A., and Gooris, G. S. Modes of action of terpene penetration enhancers in human skin; differential scanning calorimetry, small-angle x-ray diffraction and enhancer uptake studies. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 127 ISS Jan 15 1996, P9-26, (REF 50) . 1996.
Code: 8

Corsi, S. R., Booth, N. L., and Hall, D. W. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 1. Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen in receiving streams. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(7):1474-82. 2001.
Code: 8

Corsi, S. R., Hall, D. W., and Geis, S. W. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 2. Toxicity of aircraft and runway deicers. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(7):1483-90. 2001.
Code: 8

Daniel, R., Bobik, T. A., and Gottschalk, G. Biochemistry of coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol and diol dehydratases and organization of the encoding genes. FEMS Microbiol Rev 22(5):553-66. 1998.
Code: 8

Davison, S., Benson, C. E., Ziegler, A. F., and Eckroade, R. J. Evaluation of disinfectants with the addition of antifreezing compounds against nonpathogenic H7N2 avian influenza virus. Avian Dis 43(3):533-7. 1999.
Code: 8

De Bortoli, M., Ghezzi, E., Knoppel, H., and Vissers, H. A new test chamber to measure material emissions under controlled air velocity. Environmental Science & Technology; 33 (10).1999.1760-1765. 1999.
Code: 8

Debellefontaine, H., Chakchouk, M., Foussard, J. N., Tissot, D., and Striolo, P. Treatment of organic aqueous wastes: Wet air oxidation and Wet Peroxide Oxidation. Environmental Pollution; 92 (2).1996.155-164. 1996.
Code: 8

Dib, R., Chobert, J. M., Dalgalarrondo, M., and Haertle, T. Secondary structure changes and peptic hydrolysis of beta-lactoglobulin induced by diols. Biopolymers 39(1):23-30. 1996.
Code: 8

Ding, P., Xu, H., Wei, G., and Zheng, J. Microdialysis sampling coupled to HPLC for transdermal delivery study of ondansetron hydrochloride in rats. Biomed Chromatogr 14(3):141-3. 2000.
Code: 8

Doenicke, A., Roizen, M. F., Hoernecke, R., Mayer, M., Ostwald, P., and Foss, J. Haemolysis after etomidate: comparison of propylene glycol and lipid formulations. Br J Anaesth 79(3):386-8. 1997.
Code: 8

Dorr, R. T., Bellamy, W., Liddil, J. D., Baker, A., and Bair, K. W. Correlation of cytotoxicity and protein-associated DNA strand breaks for 2-(arylmethylamino)-1,3-propanediols. Anticancer Drug Des 1998 Oct;13(7):825-35 . 1998.
Code: 8

el-Fiky, M. A. Hyperglycemic effect of a neurotoxic fraction (F3) from Naja haje venom: role of hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA). J Nat Toxins 8(2):203-12. 1999.
Code: 8

Elliott, R. C., Jones, J. R., McElvenny, D. M., Pennington, M. J., Northage, C., Clegg, T. A., Clarke, S. D., Hodgson, J. T., and Osman, J. Spontaneous abortion in the British semiconductor industry: An HSE investigation. Health and Safety Executive [see comments]. Am J Ind Med 1999 Nov;36(5):557-72 . 1999.
Code: 8

Emiliani, S., Van den Bergh, M., Vannin, A. S., Biramane, J., and Englert, Y. Comparison of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol and glycerol for cryopreservation of slow-cooled mouse zygotes, 4-cell embryos and blastocysts. Hum Reprod 15(4):905-10. 2000.
Code: 8

Farshid, A. A., Rajan, A., and Nair, M. K. Ultrastructural pathology of the lymphoid organs in Japanese quail embryos in experimental ochratoxicosis. Indian Veterinary Journal; 73 (12).1996.1225-1230. 1996.
Code: 8

Farshid, A. A. and Rajan, R. Assessment of the cell-mediated immune response of Japanese quails in experimental ochratoxicosis. Indian Veterinary Journal; 73 (11).1996.1117-1121. 1996.
Code: 8

Farshid, A. A., Rajan, A., and Nair, M. K. Ultrastructural pathology of the lymphoid organs in Japanese quail embryos in experimental ochratoxicosis. Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences; 27 (1).1998.21-26. 1998.
Code: 8

Gabiga, H., Cal, K., and Janicki, S. Effect of penetration enhancers on isosorbide dinitrate penetration through rat skin from a transdermal therapeutic system. Int J Pharm 199(1):1-6. 2000.
Code: 8

Gallacher, G. and Maibach, H. I. Is atopic dermatitis a predisposing factor for experimental acute irritant contact dermatitis? Contact Dermatitis; 38 (1).1998.1-4. 1998.
Code: 8

Gao, D. Y., Neff, K., Xiao, H. Y., Matsubayashi, H., Cui, X. D., Bonderman, P., Bonderman, D., Harvey, K., McIntyre, J. A., Critser, J., Miraglia, C. C., and Reid, T. Development of optimal techniques for cryopreservation of human platelets. I. Platelet activation during cold storage (at 22 and 8 degrees C) and cryopreservation. Cryobiology 38(3):225-35. 1999.
Code: 8

Garnier, R. [Acute poisoning with industrial products]. Rev Prat 50(4):377-84. 2000.
Code: 8

Garzon-De la Mora, P., Garcia-Lopez, P. M., Garcia-Estrada, J., Navarro-Ruiz, A., Villanueva-Michel, T., Villarreal-de Puga, L. M., and Casillass-Ochoa, J. Casimiroa edulis seed extracts show anticonvulsive properties in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 68(1-3):275-82. 1999.
Code: 8

George, J. and Murray, E. Toxicological Profile for Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 05, 1998 . 1997.
Code: 7

Germann, P. G., Ockert, D., and Heinrichs, M. Pathology of the oropharyngeal cavity in six strains of rats: Predisposition of Fischer 344 rats for inflammatory and degenerative changes. Toxicologic Pathology; 26 (2).1998.283-289. 1998.
Code: 8

Gilmore, J. A., Liu, J., Gao, D. Y., and Critser, J. K. Determination of optimal cryoprotectants and procedures for their addition and removal from human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod 1997 Jan;12(1):112-8 . 1997.
Code: 8

Glover, M. L. and Reed, M. D. Propylene glycol: safe diluent that continues to cause harm. Pharmacotherapy; VOL 16 ISS 4 1996, P690-693, (REF 18) . 1996.
Code: 5

Godwin, D. A. and Michniak, B. B. Influence of drug lipophilicity on terpenes as transdermal penetration enhancers. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 25(8):905-15. 1999.
Code: 8

Gotvajn, A. Z. and Zagorc-Koncan, J. Laboratory simulation of biodegradation of chemicals in surface waters: closed bottle and respirometric test. Chemosphere 38(6):1339-46. 1999.
Code: 8

Groning, R. and Kuhland, U. Pulsed release of nitroglycerin from transdermal drug delivery systems. Int J Pharm 193(1):57-61. 1999.
Code: 8

group, Bibra working. Propylene Glycol. TA:Toxicity profile.BIBRA Toxicology International PG:16 p YR:1996 IP: VI. 1996.
Code: 7

group, N. T. P. working. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 1-Chloro-2-Propanol (Technical grade) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water studies). TA:National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series PG:264 p YR:1998 IP: VI:477 . 1998.
Code: 8

Guerriero, F. J., Seaman, C. W., Sprague, G. L., Sutton, T. J., and Toseland, C. D. Developmental toxicity in rats treated orally with 2-(2-iodoethyl)-1,3-propanediol diacetate. Toxicologist 2000 Mar;54(1):291-2 . 2000.
Code: 8

Guin, J. D. Contact Dermatitis and Other Contact Reactions. Lieberman, P.And J.A.Anderson (Ed.).Current Clinical Practice: Allergic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment.X+402p.Humana Press Inc.: Totowa, New Jersey, USA.Isbn 0-89603-367-8.; 0 (0).1997.233-254. 1997.
Code: 8

Gupta, A. K., Einarson, T. R., Summerbell, R. C., and Shear, N. H. Overview of topical antifungal therapy in dermatomycoses: North American perspective. Drugs; VOL 55 ISS May 1998, P645-674, (REF 447) . 1998.
Code: 8

Gupta, G., Dawn, G., and Forsyth, A. The trend of allergic contact dermatitis in the elderly population over a 15-year period. Contact Dermatitis; 41 (1).1999.48-50. 1999.
Code: 8

Hall, S. and Godwin-Saad, E. Effects of Pollutants on Freshwater Organisms. Water Environment Research; 68 (4).1996.776-784. 1996.
Code: 8

Hattori, T. and Maehashi, H. Increase in Calcium Influx by Propylene Glycol at Mouse Motor Nerve Terminals. In Vitro Toxicology.A Journal of Molecular and Cellular Toxicology, Vol.9, No.4, pages 373-375, 10 references, 1996 . 1996.
Code: 5

Hattori, T. and Maehashi, H. Facilitation of calcium influx by propylene glycol through the voltage- dependent calcium channels in PC12 cells. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 105(3):179-84. 1999.
Code: 5

Hattori, T. and Maehashi, H. Rise in intracellular calcium concentration by propylene glycol in PC12 cells. Int J Neurosci 99(1-4):151-7. 1999.
Code: 5

Hattori, T., Maehashi, H., Miyazawa, T., and Naito, M. Enhancement of dopamine release by propylene glycol in PC12 cells. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 107(3-4):323-9. 2000.
Code: 5

Havemann, G. D., Sampson, E. M., and Bobik, T. A. PduA is a shell protein of polyhedral organelles involved in coenzyme B(12)-dependent degradation of 1,2-propanediol in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2. J Bacteriol 184(5):1253-61. 2002.
Code: 8

Heylings, J. R., Clowes, H. M., Cumberbatch, M., Dearman, R. J., Fielding, I., Hilton, J., and Kimber, I. Sensitization to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene: influence of vehicle on absorption and lymph node activation. Toxicology 109(1):57-65. 1996.
Code: 8

Ho, H. O., Chen, L. C., Lin, H. M., and Sheu, M. T. Penetration enhancement by menthol combined with a solubilization effect in a mixed solvent system. J Control Release 51(2-3):301-11. 1998.
Code: 8

Hostynek, J. J. and Magee, P. S. Fragrance allergens: Classification and ranking by QSAR. Toxicology in Vitro; 11 (4).1997.377-384. 1997.
Code: 8

Huang, K., Rudolph, F. B., and Bennett, G. N. Characterization of methylglyoxal synthase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and its use in the formation of 1, 2- propanediol. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(7):3244-7. 1999.
Code: 8

Imamura, S., Nozawa, I., Imamura, M., and Murakami, Y. Pathogenesis of experimental aural cholesteatoma in the chinchilla. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 61(2):84-91. 1999.
Code: 5

Inoue, K., Nakazawa, K., Fujimori, K., Ohno, Y., Takanaka, A., Itagaki, H., Kato, S., Kobayashi, T., and Kuroiwa, Y. Evaluation of stinging-inducing chemicals using cultured neuronal cells: An electrophysiological approach. Toxicology in Vitro; 10 (4).1996.455-462. 1996.
Code: 8

Ishidate, M. Jr, Miura, K. F., and Sofuni, T. Chromosome aberration assays in genetic toxicology testing in vitro. Mutation Research; 404 (1-2).1998.167-172. 1998.
Code: 8

Ishiwata, H., Nishijima, M., Fukasawa, Y., Ito, Y., and Yamada, T. Evaluation of the contents of BHA, BHT, propylene glycol, and sodium saccharin in foods and estimation of daily intake based on the results of official inspection in Japan in fiscal year 1994. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan; 39 (2).1998.89-100. 1998.
Code: 8

Jaiswal, J., Poduri, R., and Panchagnula, R. Transdermal delivery of naloxone: ex vivo permeation studies. Int J Pharm 179(1):129-34. 1999.
Code: 8

Janik, M., Kleinhans, F. W., and Hagedorn, M. Overcoming a permeability barrier by microinjecting cryoprotectants into zebrafish embryos (Brachydanio rerio). Cryobiology 2000 Aug;41(1):25-34 . 2000.
Code: 8

Jewgenow, K., Penfold, L. M., Meyer, H. H., and Wildt, D. E. Viability of small preantral ovarian follicles from domestic cats after cryoprotectant exposure and cryopreservation. J Reprod Fertil 112(1):39-47. 1998.
Code: 8

Johnson, C. L., Pechonick, E., Park, S. D., Havemann, G. D., Leal, N. A., and Bobik, T. A. Functional genomic, biochemical, and genetic characterization of the Salmonella pduO gene, an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase gene. J Bacteriol 183(5):1577-84. 2001.
Code: 8

Johnson, W. Final report on the safety assessment of Propylene Glycol (PG) Dicaprylate, PG Dicaprylate-Dicaprate, PG Dicocoate, PG Dipelargonate, PG Isostearate, PG Laurate, PG Myristate, PG Oleate, PG Oleate SE, PG Dioleate, PG Dicaprate, PG Diisostearate, and PG Dilaurate. International Journal of Toxicology; 18 (Suppl.2).1999.35-52. 1999.
Code: 8

Jones, T. D. On 'toxicity equivalent factors' and 'relative potency' to account for differential toxicity and carcinogenicity: Concerns about uncommon effects of dose in animal experiments and environmental exposures to humans. Environmetrics; 9 (5).1998.525-539. 1998.
Code: 8

Kang, L., Jun, H. W., and McCall, J. W. Physicochemical studies of lidocaine-menthol binary systems for enhanced membrane transport. Int J Pharm 206(1-2):35-42. 2000.
Code: 8

Karami, K. and Beronius, P. On iontophoretic delivery enhancement: ionization and mobility of lidocaine hydrochloride in propylene glycol. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 168 ISS Jun 8 1998, P85-95, (REF 17) . 1998.
Code: 8

Karran, G. and Legge, M. Non-enzymatic formation of formaldehyde in mouse oocyte freezing mixtures. Hum Reprod 11(12):2681-6. 1996.
Code: 8

Kataoka, M., Sasaki, M., Hidalgo, A. R., Nakano, M., and Shimizu, S. Glycolic acid production using ethylene glycol-oxidizing microorganisms. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65(10):2265-70. 2001.
Code: 8

Kedzierewicz, F., Darme, X., Etienne, A., Lemut, J., Hoffman, M., and Maincent, P. Preparation of silicone microspheres by emulsion polymerization: application to the encapsulation of a hydrophilic drug. J Microencapsul 15(2):227-36. 1998.
Code: 8

Kellner, D. L. Sorption of the Aircraft Deicing Fluid Component Methyl-Benzotriazole in Soil. /u0014 . 1999.
Code: 8

Kerai, M. Dj, Waterfield, C. J., and Timbrell, J. A. The Effects of Propylene Glycol on Paracetamol Toxicity in Hamsters. Annual Progress of the British Toxological Society, Warwick, England, Uk, March 24-26, 1997.Human & Experimental Toxicology; 16 (7).1997.407. 1997.
Code: 9

Kimber, I., Dearman, R. J., and Basketter, D. A. Estimation of relative skin sensitization potency using the local lymph node assay. Annual Congress of the British Toxicology Society, Stoke on Trent, England, Uk, April 18-21, 1999.Yhuman & Experimental Toxicology; 18 (8).1999.524. 1999.
Code: 8

Kiriyama, A., Sugahara, M., Yoshikawa, Y., Kiso, Y., and Takada, K. Bioavailability of oral dosage forms of a new HIV-1 protease inhibitor, KNI-272, in beagle dogs. Biopharm.Drug Dispos.; VOL 17 ISS Mar 1996, P125-134, (REF 20) . 1996.
Code: 8

Kolloffel, W. J., Weekers, L. E., and Goldhoorn, P. B. Pharmacokinetics of propylene glycol after rectal administration. Pharm World Sci 18(3):109-13. 1996.
Code: 5

Kowalczyk, C. L., Stachecki, J. J., Schultz, J. F., Leach, R. E., and Armant, D. R. Effects of alcohols on murine preimplantation development: Relationship to relative membrane disordering potency. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research; 20 (3).1996.566-571. 1996.
Code: 5

Kruszewski, F. H., Walker, T. L., and Dipasquale, L. C. Evaluation of a human corneal epithelial cell line as an in vitro model for assessing ocular irritation. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology; 36 (2).1997.130-140. 1997.
Code: 8

Krzymien, M., Day, M., Shaw, K., Mohmad, R., and Sheehan, S. The role of feed composition on the composting process. II. Effect on the release of volatile organic compounds and odours. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part a Toxic-Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering; 34 (6).1999.1369-1396. 1999.
Code: 8

Kucherenko, Y. U. and Moiseev, V. A. The use of 1H-NMR spectroscopy and refractometry for investigation of the distribution of nonelectrolytes of N-alcohol series between human red blood cells and extracellular medium. Membr Cell Biol 13(5):633-44. 2000.
Code: 8

Kulkarni, A. S. and Hopfinger, A. J. Membrane-interaction QSAR analysis: Application to the estimation of eye irritation by organic compounds. Pharmaceutical Research (New York); 16 (8).1999.1245-1253. 1999.
Code: 8

Kusunoki, J., Kai, A., Yanagawa, Y., Monma, C., Shingaki, M., Obata, H., Itoh, T., Ohta, K., Kudoh, Y., and Nakamura, A. [Biochemical and molecular characterization of Salmonella ser. enteritidis phage type 1 isolated from food poisoning outbreaks in Tokyo]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 73(5):437-44. 1999.
Code: 8

Kuznetsova, N., Chi, S. L., and Leikin, S. Sugars and polyols inhibit fibrillogenesis of type I collagen by disrupting hydrogen-bonded water bridges between the helices. Biochemistry 37(34):11888-95. 1998.
Code: 8

LaDou, J. and Rohm, T. The international electronics industry. Int J Occup Environ Health 1998 Jan-Mar;4(1):1-18 . 1998.
Code: 8

Laitinen, J. Biomonitoring of technical grade 1-alkoxy-2-propanol acetates by analysing urinary 2-alkoxypropionic acids. Sci Total Environ 1997 Jun 20;199(1-2):31-9 . 1997.
Code: 8

Laitinen, J., Liesivuori, J., and Savolainen, H. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to 1-methoxy-2-propanol. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 694(1):93-8. 1997.
Code: 8

LaKind, J. S., McKenna, E. A., Hubner, R. P., and Tardiff, R. G. A review of the comparative mammalian toxicity of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Crit Rev Toxicol 29(4):331-65. 1999.
Code: 7

Lanigan, R. S. Special report: reproductive and developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol and its ethers. Int J Toxicol 1999;18(Suppl 2):53-67 . 1999.
Code: 8

Lansdown, A. B. and Taylor, A. Zinc and titanium oxides: promising UV-absorbers but what influence do they have on the intact skin? Int.J.Cosmet.Sci.; VOL 19 ISS 4 1997, P167-172, (REF 10) . 1997.
Code: 8

Larrucea, E., Arellano, A., Santoyo, S., and Ygartua, P. Combined effect of oleic acid and propylene glycol on the percutaneous penetration of tenoxicam and its retention in the skin. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 52(2):113-9. 2001.
Code: 8

Lee, B. J., Lee, T. S., Cha, B. J., Kim, S. H., and Kim, W. B. Percutaneous absorption and histopathology of a poloxamer-based formulation of capsaicin analog. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 159 ISS Dec 15 1997, P105-114, (REF 21) . 1997.
Code: 8

Lee, B. J., Cui, J. H., Parrott, K. A., Ayres, J. W., and Sack, R. L. Percutaneous absorption and model membrane variations of melatonin in aqueous-based propylene glycol and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin vehicles. Arch Pharm Res 21(5):503-7. 1998.
Code: 8

Leone-Bay, A., Leipold, H., Agarwal, R., Rivera, T., and Baughman, R. A. Evolution of an oral heparin dosing solution. Drugs Future; VOL 22 ISS Aug 1997, P885-891, (REF 22) . 1997.
Code: 8

Leppik, I. E. Role of new and established antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1998;39 Suppl 5:2-6 . 1998.
Code: 8

Levang, A. K., Zhao, K., and Singh, J. Effect of ethanol/propylene glycol on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of aspirin, biophysical changes and macroscopic barrier properties of the skin. Int J Pharm 181(2):255-63. 1999.
Code: 8

Li, B., Pinch, H., and Birt, D. F. Influence of vehicle, distant topical delivery, and biotransformation on the chemopreventive activity of apigenin, a plant flavonoid, in mouse skin. Pharm Res 13(10):1530-4. 1996.
Code: 8

Li, B. and Birt, D. F. In vivo and in vitro percutaneous absorption of cancer preventive flavonoid apigenin in different vehicles in mouse skin. Pharm.Res.; VOL 13 ISS Nov 1996, P1710-1715, (REF 9) . 1996.
Code: 8

Liesivuori, J., Laitinen, J., and Savolainen, H. Rat model for renal effects of 2-alkoxyalcohols and their acetates. Arch Toxicol 73(4-5):229-32. 1999.
Code: 5

Lin, S. Y., Duan, K. J., and Lin, T. C. Microscopic FT-IR/DSC system used to simultaneously investigate the conversion process of protein structure in porcine stratum corneum after pretreatment with skin penetration enhancers. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 18(3):175-81. 1996.
Code: 8

Liu, C. J., Ueda, M., Kosaka, S., Hirata, T., Yokomise, H., Inui, K., Hitomi, S., and Wada, H. A newly developed solution enhances thirty-hour preservation in a canine lung transplantation model. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 112(3):569-76. 1996.
Code: 8

Longo, D. L., Duffey, P. L., Kopp, W. C., Heyes, M. P., Alvord, W. G., Sharfman, W. H., Schmidt, P. J., Rubinow, D. R., and Rosenstein, D. L. Conditioned immune response to interferon-gamma in humans. Clin Immunol 90(2):173-81. 1999.
Code: 8

Loskutoff, N. M., Simmons, H. A., Goulding, M., Thompson, G., De Jongh, T., and Simmons, L. G. Species and individual variations in cryoprotectant toxicities and freezing resistances of epididymal sperm from African antelope. Animal Reproduction Science; 42 (1-4).1996.527-535. 1996.
Code: 8

Louik, C., Frumkin, H., Ellenbecker, M. J., Goldman, R. H., Werler, M. M., and Mitchell, A. A. Use of a job-exposure matrix to assess occupational exposures in relation to birth defects. J Occup Environ Med 42(7):693-703. 2000.
Code: 8

Machate, T. and Kettrup, A. Spectrophotometric method for the determination of 1,2-propylene glycol. Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry; 360 (1).1998.137-138. 1998.
Code: 8

Mahadevan, M. M., McIntosh, Q., Miller, M. M., Breckinridge, S. M., Maris, M., and Moutos, D. M. Formaldehyde in cryoprotectant propanediol and effect on mouse zygotes. Hum Reprod 1998 Apr;13(4):979-82 . 1998.
Code: 8

Mailhes, J. B., Young, D., and London, S. N. 1,2-propanediol-induced premature centromere separation in mouse oocytes and aneuploidy in one-cell zygotes. Biol Reprod 57(1):92-8. 1997.
Code: 3, 6

Malandain, H. and Cano, Y. An Enzymatic Assay for the Emergency Diagnosis of Propylene Glycol Intoxication. 48th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA, July 28-August 1, 1996.Clinical Chemistry; 42 (6 Part 2).1996.S213. 1996.
Code: 8

Mallidis, C., Phelan, D., Coles, M., and Jones, G. Does the composition of propane-1,2-diol alter over time? J Assist Reprod Genet 13(1):53-5. 1996.
Code: 8

Malonne, H., Fontaine, J., and Moes, A. In vitro/in vivo characterization of a tramadol HCl depot system composed of monoolein and water. Biol Pharm Bull 23(5):627-31. 2000.
Code: 8

Manganaro, A. M. and Wertz, P. W. The effects of permeabilizers on the in vitro penetration of propranolol through porcine buccal epithelium. Mil Med 161(11):669-72. 1996.
Code: 8

Massaad, C., Entezami, F., Massade, L., Benahmed, M., Olivennes, F., Barouki, R., and Hamamah, S. How can chemical compounds alter human fertility? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 100(2):127-37. 2002.
Code: 8

Matthews, H. B. Chemical Metabolism and Toxicokinetics. Crisp Data Base National Institutes Of Health . 1996.
Code: 8

Mauldin, R. E., Goodall, M. J., Volz, S. A., Griffin, D. L., Petty, E. J., and Johnston, J. J. Zinc phosphide residue determination in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; 45 (6).1997.2107-2111. 1997.
Code: 8

McCain, W. C., Lee, R., Johnson, M. S., Whaley, J. E., Ferguson, J. W., Beall, P., and Leach, G. Acute oral toxicity study of pyridostigmine bromide, permethrin, and DEET in the laboratory rat. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health; 50 (2).1997.113-124. 1997.
Code: 8

McClanahan, S., Hunter, J., Murphy, M., and Valberg, S. Propylene glycol toxicosis in a mare. Veterinary and Human Toxicology; 40 (5).1998.294-296. 1998.
Code: 5

Mead, C. and Pentreath, V. W. Evaluation of toxicity indicators in rat primary astrocytes, C6 glioma and human 1231N1 astrocytoma cells: Can gliotoxicity be distinguished from cytotoxicity? Archives of Toxicology; 72 (6).1998.372-380. 1998.
Code: 8

Medlicott, N. J., Foster, K. A., Audus, K. L., Gupta, S., and Stella, V. J. Comparison of the effects of potential parenteral vehicles for poorly water soluble anticancer drugs (organic cosolvents and cyclodextrin solutions) on cultured endothelial cells (HUV-EC). J Pharm Sci 87(9):1138-43. 1998.
Code: 8

Meshitsuka, S., Inoue, M., Seki, A., Koeda, T., and Takeshita, K. Screening of urine by one-dimensional and pulsed-field gradient two- dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy: intoxication by propylene glycol in an infant patient. Clin Chim Acta 279(1-2):47-54. 1999.
Code: 8

Mirochnick, M., Clarke, D. F., McNamara, E. R., and Cabral, H. Bioequivalence of a propylene glycol-based liquid dapsone preparation and dapsone tablets. Am J Health Syst Pharm 57(19):1775-7. 2000.
Code: 8

Mitchell, H. L. Toxicity of Tolyltriazole to Gram-Positive Coccus Microorganisms. /u0019 . 2000.
Code: 8

Miyoshi, S., Pate, J. L., and Palmquist, D. L. Effects of propylene glycol drenching on energy balance, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, ovarian function and conception in dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 68(1-2):29-43. 2001.
Code: 5

Mochimaru, M. and Sakurai, H. Effects of organic solvents and tentoxin on enzyme-bound ATP synthesis in isolated chloroplast coupling factor 1. Photosynthesis Research; 57 (3).1998.305-315. 1998.
Code: 8

Mori, T., Sakimoto, M., Kagi, T., and Sakai, T. Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from a vinyl alcohol oligomer-degrading Geotrichum fermentans; stabilization with Triton X-100 and activity toward polymers with polymerization degrees less than 20. 1998.
Code: 8

Morshed, K. M., Jain, S. K., and McMartin, K. E. Propylene glycol-mediated cell injury in a primary culture of human proximal tubule cells. Toxicol Sci 46(2):410-7. 1998.
Code: 5

Moser, K., Kriwet, K., Froehlich, C., Kalia, Y. N., and Guy, R. H. Supersaturation: enhancement of skin penetration and permeation of a lipophilic drug. Pharm Res 18(7):1006-11. 2001.
Code: 8

Mukaida, T., Wada, S., Takahashi, K., Pedro, P. B., An, T. Z., and Kasai, M. Vitrification of human embryos based on the assessment of suitable conditions for 8-cell mouse embryos. Hum Reprod 13(1O):2874-9. 1998.
Code: 8

Mura, P., Faucci, M. T., Bramanti, G., and Corti, P. Evaluation of transcutol as a clonazepam transdermal permeation enhancer from hydrophilic gel formulations. Eur J Pharm Sci 9(4):365-72. 2000.
Code: 8

Murakami, T., Yoshioka, M., Yumoto, R., Higashi, Y., Shigeki, S., Ikuta, Y., and Yata, N. Topical delivery of keloid therapeutic drug, tranilast, by combined use of oleic acid and propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer: evaluation by skin microdialysis in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 50(1):49-54. 1998.
Code: 8

Mushrush, G. W., Basak, S. C., Slone, J. E., Beal, E. J., Basu, S., Stalick, W. M., and Hardy, D. R. Computational Study of the Environmental Fate of Selected Aircraft Fuel System Deicing Compounds. Journal of Environmental Science and Health.Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxic and Hazardous Substance Control, Vol.A32, No.8, pages 2201-2211, 17 references, 1997 . 1997.
Code: 8

Neurath, G., Franke, S., Francke, W., and Marquardt, H. Mutagenicity of Trichlorinated Dipropylether Isomers. 39th Spring Meeting of the German Society for Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Mainz, Germany, March 17-19, 1998.Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology; 357 (4 Suppl.).1998.R142. 1998.
Code: 8

Newton, H., Fisher, J., Arnold, J. R., Pegg, D. E., Faddy, M. J., and Gosden, R. G. Permeation of human ovarian tissue with cryoprotective agents in preparation for cryopreservation. Hum Reprod 13(2):376-80. 1998.
Code: 8

Niazy, E. M. Differences in penetration enhancing effect of Azone through excised rabbit, rat, hairless mouse, guinea pig and human skins. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 130 ISS Mar 22 1996, P225-230, (REF 24) . 1996.
Code: 8

Noddegaard, F. and Kennaway, D. J. A method of achieving physiological plasma levels of melatonin in the chicken by oral administration. J Pineal Res 27(3):129-38. 1999.
Code: 8

Nordic steering group for assessment of health effects of, chemicals. Health effects of selected chemicals 4-5. 2,2ï-Oxydiethanol (Diethylene glycol). TA:Nord PG:317-41 YR:1999 IP: VI:15 . 1999.
Code: 8

Ogier de Baulny, B., Labbe, C., and Maisse, G. Membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, ATP content, and motility of the European catfish (Silurus glanis) testicular spermatozoa after freezing with different cryoprotectants. Cryobiology 39(2):177-84. 1999.
Code: 8

Ogiso, T., Niinaka, N., and Iwaki, M. Mechanism for enhancement effect of lipid disperse system on percutaneous absorption. J Pharm Sci 85(1):57-64. 1996.
Code: 8

Oh, S. Y., Jeong, S. Y., Park, T. G., and Lee, J. H. Enhanced transdermal delivery of AZT (Zidovudine) using iontophoresis and penetration enhancer. J Control Release 51(2-3):161-8. 1998.
Code: 8

Oude Elferink, S. J., Krooneman, J., Gottschal, J. C., Spoelstra, S. F., Faber, F., and Driehuis, F. Anaerobic conversion of lactic acid to acetic acid and 1, 2-propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri. Appl Environ Microbiol 67(1):125-32. 2001.
Code: 8

Palmer, R., Godwin, D., and McKinney, P. Transdermal Kinetics of a Mercurous Chloride Beauty Cream an in Vitro Human Skin Analysis. Annual Meeting of the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology, Orlando, Florida, USA, September 9-15, 1998.Journal of Toxicology Clinical Toxicology; 36 (5).1998.528-529. 1998.
Code: 8

Panchagnula, R., Salve, P. S., Thomas, N. S., Jain, A. K., and Ramarao, P. Transdermal delivery of naloxone: effect of water, propylene glycol, ethanol and their binary combinations on permeation through rat skin. Int J Pharm 219(1-2):95-105. 2001.
Code: 8

Parker, M. G., Fraser, G. L., Watson, D. M., and Riker, R. R. Removal of propylene glycol and correction of increased osmolar gap by hemodialysis in a patient on high dose lorazepam infusion therapy. Intensive Care Med 28(1):81-4. 2002.
Code: 8

Patro, N., Mishra, S. K., Chattopadhyay, M., and Patro, I. K. Neurotoxicological effects of deltamethrin on the postnatal development of cerebellum of rat. Journal of Biosciences (Bangalore); 22 (2).1997.117-130. 1997.
Code: 8

Peleg, O., Bar-Oz, B., and Arad, I. Coma in a premature infant associated with the transdermal absorption of propylene glycol. 1998.
Code: 5

Pendergrass, S. M. Determination of glycols in air: Development of sampling and analytical methodology and application to theatrical smokes. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal July-Aug.1999, Vol.60, No.4, p.452-457.Illus.23 ref. 1999.
Code: 8

Peng, L. and Nimni, M. E. Delivery of erythromycin to subcutaneous tissues in rats by means of a trans-phase delivery system. J Pharm Pharmacol 51(10):1135-41. 1999.
Code: 8

Perkins, M. A., Osborne, R., and Johnson, G. R. Development of an in vitro method for corrosion testing. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology; 31 (1).1996.9-18. 1996.
Code: 8

Perkins, M. A., Osborne, R., Rana, F. R., Ghassemi, A., and Robinson, M. K. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo human skin responses to consumer products and ingredients with a range of irritancy potential. Toxicological Sciences; 48 (2).1999.218-229. 1999.
Code: 8

Pilgram, G. S., Engelsma-van Pelt, A. M., Koerten, H. K., and Bouwstra, J. A. The effect of two azones on the lateral lipid organization of human stratum corneum and its permeability. Pharm Res 17(7):796-802. 2000.
Code: 5

Pillard, D. A. and Dufresne, D. L. Toxicity of formulated glycol deicers and ethylene and propylene glycol to Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne, Selenastrum capricornutum, and Lemna minor. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology; 37 (1).1999.29-35. 1999.
Code: 8

Pistoor, F. Hm, Rambukkana, A., Kroezen, M., Lepoittevin, J. P., Bos, J. D., Kapsenberg, M. L., and Das, P. K. Novel predictive assay for contact allergens using human skin explant cultures. American Journal of Pathology; 149 (1).1996.337-343. 1996.
Code: 8

Poppe, L. and Retey, J. Kinetic investigations with inhibitors that mimic the posthomolysis intermediate in the reactions of coenzyme-B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase and diol dehydratase. Eur J Biochem 245(2):398-401. 1997.
Code: 8

Price-Carter, M., Tingey, J., Bobik, T. A., and Roth, J. R. The alternative electron acceptor tetrathionate supports B12-dependent anaerobic growth of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium on ethanolamine or 1,2-propanediol. J Bacteriol 183(8):2463-75. 2001.
Code: 8

Proniuk, S., Dixon, S. E., and Blanchard, J. Investigation of the utility of an in vitro release test for optimizing semisolid dosage forms. Pharm Dev Technol 6(3):469-76. 2001.
Code: 8

Qatibi, A. I., Bennisse, R., Jana, M., and Garcia, J. L. Anaerobic degradation of glycerol by Desulfovibrio fructosovorans and D. carbinolicus and evidence for glycerol-dependent utilization of 1,2-propanediol. Current Microbiology; 36 (5).1998.283-290. 1998.
Code: 8

Qian, W., Amin, R. H., and Shichi, H. Cytotoxic metabolite of acetaminophen, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, produces cataract in DBA2 mice. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 15(6):537-45. 1999.
Code: 8

Rayburn, W., Christensen, D., and Gonzalez, C. Neurobehavior effects in four strains of mice offspring exposed prenatally to alprazolam (XanaxÑ). Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001 Dec;185(6 Pt 2):S184 . 2001.
Code: 8

Reddy, I. K., Khan, M. A., Wu, W. M., and Bodor, N. S. Permeability of a soft steroid, loteprednol etabonate, through an excised rabbit cornea. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 12(2):159-67. 1996.
Code: 8

Rice, P. J., Anderson, T. A., and Coats, J. R. The Use of Vegetation to Enhance Biodegradation and Reduce Offsite Movement of Aircraft Deicers. 212th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Orlando, Florida, USA, August 25-29, 1996.Abstracts of Papers American Chemical Society; 212 (1-2).1996.Agro 54. 1996.
Code: 8

Rice, P. J. and Coats, J. R. The Use of Plants for Reducing the Environmental Impact of De-Icing Agents Au - Anderson Ta. 212th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Orlando, Florida, USA, August 25-29, 1996.Abstracts of Papers American Chemical Society; 212 (1-2).1996.Agro 97. 1996.
Code: 8

Rondon, M. R. and Escalante-Semerena, J. C. High levels of transcription factor RpoS (sigma S) in mviA mutants negatively affect 1,2-propanediol-dependent transcription of the cob/pdu regulon of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. FEMS Microbiol Lett 169(1):147-53. 1998.
Code: 8

Rosenkranz, M., Rosenkranz, H. S., and Klopman, G. Intercellular communication, tumor promotion and non-genotoxic carcinogenesis: relationships based upon structural considerations. Mutat Res 1997 Nov 28;381(2):171-88 . 1997.
Code: 8

Saini, M., Dash, S., and Nagpaul, J. P. Hematological Alterations in Propylene Glycol-Dosed Female Rats Are Minimal. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, Vol.38, No.2, pages 81-85, 27 references, 1996 . 1996.
Code: 5

Schenker, M. B. Reproductive health effects of glycol ether exposure in the semiconductor industry. Occup Hyg 1996;2(1-6):367-72 . 1996.
Code: 8

Schneider, I. M., Dobner, B., Neubert, R., and Wohlrab, W. Evaluation of drug penetration into human skin ex vivo using branched fatty acids and propylene glycol. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 145 ISS Dec 6 1996, P187-196, (REF 32) . 1996.
Code: 8

Schoenberg, T., Veltman, S., and Switzenbaum, M. Kinetics of anaerobic degradation of glycol-based type I aircraft deicing fluids. Biodegradation 12(1):59-68. 2001.
Code: 8

Schramke, J. A., Murphy, S. F., Doucette, W. J., and Hintze, W. D. Prediction of aqueous diffusion coefficients for organic compounds at 25êC. Chemosphere; 38 (10).1999.2381-2406. 1999.
Code: 8

Schwarb, F. P., Imanidis, G., Smith, E. W., Haigh, J. M., and Surber, C. Effect of concentration and degree of saturation of topical fluocinonide formulations on in vitro membrane transport and in vivo availability on human skin. Pharm Res 16(6):909-15. 1999.
Code: 8

Seay, R. E., Graves, P. J., and Wilkin, M. K. Comment: possible toxicity from propylene glycol in lorazepam infusion. Ann.Pharmacother.; VOL 31 ISS May 1997, P647-648, (REF 11) . 1997.
Code: 5

Senthilmohan, S. T., McEwan, M. J., Wilson, P. F., Milligan, D. B., and Freeman, C. G. Real time analysis of breath volatiles using SIFT-MS in cigarette smoking. Redox Rep 6(3):185-7. 2001.
Code: 8

Shepherd, M. F. and Felt-Gunderson, P. A. Diarrhea associated with lorazepam solution in a tube-fed patient. Nutr.Clin.Pract.; VOL 11 ISS 3 1996, P117-120, (REF 13) . 1996.
Code: 8

Shimoi, K., Okada, H., Furugori, M., Goda, T., Takase, S., Suzuki, M., Hara, Y., Yamamoto, H., and Kinae, N. Intestinal absorption of luteolin and luteolin 7-O-beta-glucoside in rats and humans. FEBS Lett 438(3):220-4. 1998.
Code: 8

Siddiqui, A., Yasmeen, A., Shaharyar, S., and Mariam, T. Neural and endocrine consequences of perinatal exposure to benzodiazepine. J Reprod Fertil Abstr Ser 1998 Jul;(21):30 . 1998.
Code: 8

Singhai, A., Jain, S., and Jain, N. K. Evaluation of piroxicam injection. Indian J.Pharm.Sci.; VOL 59 ISS 6 1997, P306-311, (REF 9) . 1997.
Code: 8

Skaare, A. B., Rolla, G., and Barkvoll, P. The influence of triclosan, zinc or propylene glycol on oral mucosa exposed to sodium lauryl sulphate. Eur J Oral Sci 105(5 Pt 2):527-33. 1997.
Code: 8

Sloan, K. B., Taylor, H. E., and Hamilton, J. C. Alcohol flux and effect on the delivery of theophylline from propylene glycol. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 156 ISS Oct 10 1997, P17-26, (REF 14) . 1997.
Code: 8

Son, W. Y., Park, S. E., Lee, K. A., Lee, W. S., Ko, J. J., Yoon, T. K., and Cha, K. Y. Effects of 1,2-propanediol and freezing-thawing on the in vitro developmental capacity of human immature oocytes. Fertil Steril 1996 Dec;66(6):995-9 . 1996.
Code: 9

Sonoda, T., Fukunaga, K., Tashiro, S., Ohba, K., and Sugimoto, T. Carbamazepine-induced cardiovascular abnormalities in chick embryos. Teratology 1996 Oct;54(4):14A . 1996.
Code: 8

Squillante, E., Needham, T., Maniar, A., Kislalioglu, S., and Zia, H. Codiffusion of propylene glycol and dimethyl isosorbide in hairless mouse skin. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 46(3):265-71. 1998.
Code: 8

Sun, W. Q., Meng, M., Kumar, G., Geelhaar, L. A., Payne, G. F., Speedie, M. K., and Stacy, J. R. Biological denitration of propylene glycol dinitrate by Bacillus sp. ATCC 51912. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology; 45 (4).1996.525-529. 1996.
Code: 8

Swan, S. H. and Forest, W. Reproductive risks of glycol ethers and other agents used in semiconductor manufacturing. Occup Hyg 1996;2(1-6):373-85 . 1996.
Code: 8

Taguchi, K., Fukushima, S., Yamaoka, Y., Takeuchi, Y., and Suzuki, M. Enhancement of propylene glycol distribution in the skin by high purity cis-unsaturated fatty acids with different alkyl chain lengths having different double bond position. Biol Pharm Bull 22(4):407-11. 1999.
Code: 8

Takahashi, O. and Oishi, S. Disposition of orally administered bisphenol A in pregnant rats and the placental transfer to fetuses. J Toxicol Sci 1999 Oct;24(4):297 . 1999.
Code: 8

Takahashi, O. and Oishi, S. Disposition of orally administered 2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (Bisphenol A) in pregnant rats and the placental transfer to fetuses. Environ Health Perspect 2000 Oct;108(10):931-5 . 2000.
Code: 8

Takeuchi, Y., Miyawaki, K., Kamiyabu, S., Fukushima, S., Yamaoka, Y., Kishimoto, S., Taguchi, K., Masai, H., and Kamata, Y. Use of electroporation to accelerate the skin permeability enhancing action of oleic acid. Biol Pharm Bull 23(7):850-4. 2000.
Code: 8

Tanojo, H., Bouwstra, J. A., Junginger, H. E., and Bodde, H. E. In vitro human skin barrier modulation by fatty acids: skin permeation and thermal analysis studies. Pharm.Res.; VOL 14 ISS Jan 1997, P42-49, (REF 20) . 1997.
Code: 8

Tanojo, H., Junginger, H. E., and Bodde, H. E. In vivo human skin permeability enhancement by oleic acid: transepidermal water loss and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studies. J.Controlled Release; VOL 47 ISS Jul 7 1997, P31-39, (REF 44) . 1997.
Code: 5

Tanojo, H. and Junginger, H. E. Skin permeation enhancement by fatty acids. J.Disper.Sci.Tech.; VOL 20 ISS 1-2 1999, P127-138, (REF 25) . 1999.
Code: 8

Tanojo, H., Boelsma, E., Junginger, H. E., Ponec, M., and Bodde, H. E. In vivo human skin permeability enhancement by oleic acid: laser Doppler velocimetry study. J.Controlled Release; VOL 58 ISS Mar 8 1999, P97-104, (REF 39) . 1999.
Code: 8

Taylor, S. L. and Dormedy, E. S. The Role of Flavoring Substances in Food Allergy and Intolerance. Taylor, S.L.(Ed.).Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Vol.42.Ix+278p.Academic Press, Inc.: San Diego, California, USA; London, England, Uk.Isbn 0-12-016442-6.; 42 (0).1998.1-44. 1998.
Code: 8

Tenjarla, S. N., Puranajoti, P., Kasina, R., and Mandal, T. Terbutaline transdermal delivery: preformulation studies and limitations of in vitro predictive parameters. J.Pharm.Pharmacol.; VOL 48 ISS Nov 1996, P1138-1142, (REF 10) . 1996.
Code: 8

Tice, R. R., Nylander-French, L. A., and French, J. E. Absence of systemic in vivo genotoxicity after dermal exposure to ethyl acrylate and tripropylene glycol diacrylate in Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) mice. Environ Mol Mutagen 1997;29(3):240-9 . 1997.
Code: 8

Tobimatsu, T., Kajiura, H., Yunoki, M., Azuma, M., and Toraya, T. Identification and expression of the genes encoding a reactivating factor for adenosylcobalamin-dependent glycerol dehydratase. J Bacteriol 181(13):4110-3. 1999.
Code: 8

Tsang, A. W. and Escalante-Semerena, J. C. cobB function is required for catabolism of propionate in Salmonella typhimurium LT2: evidence for existence of a substitute function for CobB within the 1,2-propanediol utilization (pdu) operon. J Bacteriol 178(23):7016-9. 1996.
Code: 8

Tsang, A. W., Horswill, A. R., and Escalante-Semerena, J. C. Studies of regulation of expression of the propionate (prpBCDE) operon provide insights into how Salmonella typhimurium LT2 integrates its 1,2- propanediol and propionate catabolic pathways. J Bacteriol 180(24):6511-8. 1998.
Code: 8

Tsuchiya, Y. and Kanabus-Kaminska, J. M. Identification and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Systematic Single-Ion Chromatograms. Wang, W., J.L.Schnoor and J.Doi (Ed.).Astm Stp, 1261.Volatile Organic Compounds In the Environment; Symposium, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 11-13, 1994.291p.Astm (American Society for Testing and Materials): Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.Isbn 0-8031-2048-6.; 0 (1261).1996.127-138. 1996.
Code: 8

Tsutsumi, K., Obata, Y., Takayama, K., Loftsson, T., and Nagai, T. Effect of cod-liver oil extract on the buccal permeation of ergotamine tartrate. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 24(8):757-62. 1998.
Code: 8

Tuo, J., Loft, S., Thomsen, M. S., and Poulsen, H. E. Benzene-induced genotoxicity in mice in vivo detected by the alkaline comet assay: reduction by CYP2E1 inhibition. Mutat Res 368(3-4):213-9. 1996.
Code: 8

Valenta, C. and Wedenig, S. Effects of penetration enhancers on the in-vitro percutaneous absorption of progesterone. J Pharm Pharmacol 49(10):955-9. 1997.
Code: 8

van den Abbeel, E., van der Elst, J., van der Linden, M., and van Steirteghem, A. C. High survival rate of one-cell mouse embryos cooled rapidly to -196 degrees C after exposure to a propylene glycol-dimethylsulfoxide- sucrose solution. Cryobiology 34(1):1-12. 1997.
Code: 8

van den Wollenberg, L., Pellicaan, C. H., and Muller, K. [Intoxication with propylene glycol in two horses.]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 125(17):519-23. 2000.
Code: 5

Varon, J. and Marik, P. Etomidate and propylene glycol toxicity. J Emerg Med 16(3):485. 1998.
Code: 9

Veltman, S., Schoenberg, T., and Switzenbaum, M. S. Alcohol and acid formation during the anaerobic decomposition of propylene glycol under methanogenic conditions. Biodegradation 9(2):113-8. 1998.
Code: 8

Verschuuren, H. G. Toxicological Studies with Propylene Glycol n-Butyl Ether. Occupational Hygiene, Vol.2, Nos.1-6, pages 311-318, 6 references, 1996 . 1996.
Code: 8

Villard, P. H., Seree, E. M., Re, J. L., De Meo, M., Barra, Y., Attolini, L., Dumenil, G., Catalin, J., Durand, A., and Lacarelle, B. Effects of tobacco smoke on the gene expression of the Cyp1a, Cyp2b, Cyp2e, and Cyp3a subfamilies in mouse liver and lung: relation to single strand breaks of DNA. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998 Feb;148(2):195-204 . 1998.
Code: 8

Vincent, R., Rieger, B., Subra, I., and Poirot, P. Exposure Assessment to Glycol Ethers by Atmosphere and Biological Monitoring. Occupational Hygiene, Vol.2, Nos.1-6, pages 79-90, 14 references, 1996 . 1996.
Code: 8

Vitkova, Z., Gardavska, K., and Cizmarik, J. Study of local anaesthetics. Part 139. Preformulation study of N-[2-(2- heptyloxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-ethyl] dimethylammonium chloride. Acta Pharm Hung 66(6):253-7. 1996.
Code: 8

Voziyan, P. A. and Fisher, M. T. Polyols induce ATP-independent folding of GroEL-bound bacterial glutamine synthetase. Arch Biochem Biophys 397(2):293-7. 2002.
Code: 8

W, H. O. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Who Technical Report Series; 0 (868).1997.I-Viii, 1-69. 1997.
Code: 8

Wada, H., Liu, C. J., Hirata, T., Bando, T., and Kosaka, S. Effective 30-hour preservation of canine lungs with modified ET-Kyoto solution. Ann Thorac Surg; 61(4):1099-105 1996 . 1996.
Code: 8

Wahlberg, J. E. and Boman, A. Prevention of Contact Dermatitis from Solvents. Elsner, P., Et Al.(Ed.).Current Problems in Dermatology (Basel), Vol.25.Prevention of Contact Dermatitis; International Conference on the Prevention of Contact Dermatitis, Zurich, Switzerland, October 4-7, 1995.X+226p.S.Karger Ag: Basel, Switzerland; New York, New York, USA.Isbn 3-8055-6311-6.; 25 (0).1996.57-66. 1996.
Code: 8

Walter, D., Ailion, M., and Roth, J. Genetic characterization of the pdu operon: use of 1,2-propanediol in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol 179(4):1013-22. 1997.
Code: 8

Wang, G. and Bai, N. Structure-activity relationships for rat and mouse DL50 of miscellaneous alcohols. Chemosphere; 36 (7).1998.1475-1483. 1998.
Code: 8

Warbrick, E. V., Dearman, R. J., Basketter, D. A., and Kimber, I. Local lymph node assay responses to (chloro)methylisothiazolinone: Influence of vehicle. Annual Congress of the British Toxicology Society, Stoke on Trent, England, Uk, April 18-21, 1999.Yhuman & Experimental Toxicology; 18 (8).1999.526. 1999.
Code: 8

Wester, R. C., Hui, X., Landry, T., and Maibach, H. I. In vivo skin decontamination of methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI): soap and water ineffective compared to polypropylene glycol, polyglycol- based cleanser, and corn oil. Toxicol Sci 48(1):1-4. 1999.
Code: 8

Who. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. 884: Forty-ninth report of the Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Who Technical Report Series; 0 (884).1999.1-96. 1999.
Code: 9

Wieslander, G., Norback, D., and Lindgren, T. Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects. Occup Environ Med 58(10):649-55. 2001.
Code: 5

Williams, S. P., O'Brien, S., Whitmore, K., Purcell, W. M., Cookson, M. R., Mead, C., Pentreath, V. W., and Atterwill, C. K. An in vitro neurotoxicity testing scheme: Evaluation of cytotoxicity determinations in neural and non-neural cells. In Vitro Toxicology; 9 (1).1996.83-92. 1996.
Code: 8

Wilson, K. C., Reardon, C., and Farber, H. W. Propylene glycol toxicity in a patient receiving intravenous diazepam. N Engl J Med 343(11):815. 2000.
Code: 9

Wolkoff, P. and Nielsen, P. A. A new approach for indoor climate labeling of building materials-emission testing, modeling, and comfort evaluation. Atmospheric Environment; 30 (15).1996.2679-2689. 1996.
Code: 8

Wormser, U., Kohen, R., Moor, E. V., Eldad, A., Gal, R., Nyska, A., and Brodsky, B. Noninvasive procedure for in situ determination of skin surface aspartic proteinase activity in animals; implications for human skin. Arch Dermatol Res 289(12):686-91. 1997.
Code: 8

Woycik, C. L. and Walker, P. C. Correction and comment: possible toxicity from propylene glycol in injectable drug preparations. Ann Pharmacother 31(11):1413. 1997.
Code: 9

Wrzesinski, C. L., Feeney, W. P., Feely, W. F., and Crouch, L. S. Dermal penetration of 4"-(epi-methylamino)-4"-deoxyavermectin B1a benzoate in the rhesus monkey. Food and Chemical Toxicology; 35 (10-11).1997.1085-1089. 1997.
Code: 8

Xu, D., Dhillon, A. S., Abelmann, A., Croft, K., Peters, T. J., and Palmer, T. N. Alcohol-related diols cause acute insulin resistance in vivo. Metabolism 47(10):1180-6. 1998.
Code: 5

Zamir, G., Bloom, A. I., and Reissman, P. Prevention of intestinal adhesions after laparotomy in a rat model--a randomized prospective study. Res Exp Med (Berl) 197(6):349-53. 1998.
Code: 8

Ziv, G., Shem-Tov, M., and Ascher, F. Combined effect of ampicillin, colistin and dexamethasone administered intramuscularly to dairy cows on the clinico-pathological course of E. coli-endotoxin mastitis. Veterinary Research (Paris); 29 (1).1998.89-98. 1998.
Code: 8

Ego Electronic Cigarette

Safety of electronic cigarettes

 UK

Disassembled parts of a first generation e-cigarette. A. LED light cover B. battery (also houses circuitry) C. atomizer (heating element) D. cartridge (mouthpiece) Parts of a second generation e-cigarette. An electronic cigarette is a battery-powered vaporizer.[1] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] When the user pushes a button,[4] or (in some variations) activates a pressure sensor by inhaling, the heating element then atomizes the liquid solution[5] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[7] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[1] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] First generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[11] Second generation devices are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] Third generation devices include mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[10] The fourth generation includes Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[15] A later-generation box mod e-cigarette. Image courtesy of Ecigclick An e-cigarette is a handheld battery-powered vaporizer that simulates smoking, but without tobacco combustion.[1] Once the user inhales, the airflow activates the pressure sensor, and then the heating element atomizes the liquid solution.[5] Most devices have a manual push-button switch to turn them on or off.[16] E-cigarettes do not turn on by trying to "light" the device with a flame.[4] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature.[17] A glycerin-only liquid vaporizes at a higher temperature than a propylene glycol-glycerin liquid.[17] Rather than cigarette smoke, the user inhales an aerosol, commonly but inaccurately called vapor.[7] E-cigarettes do not create vapor between puffs.[18] Vaping is different than tobacco smoking, but there are some similarities with their behavioral habits, including the hand-to-mouth action and a vapor that looks like cigarette smoke.[1] E-cigarettes provide a flavor and feel similar to smoking.[1] A noticeable difference between the traditional cigarette and the e-cigarette is sense of touch.[1] A traditional cigarette is smooth and light but an e-cigarette is rigid, cold and slightly heavier.[1] Since e-cigarettes are more complex than traditional cigarettes, a learning curve is needed to use them correctly.[19] Compared to traditional cigarettes, the general e-cigarette puff time is much longer, and requires a more forceful suction than a regular cigarette.[20] The volume of vapor created by e-cigarette devices in 2012 declined with vaping.[1] Thus, to create the same volume of vapor increasing puff force is needed.[1] Later-generation e-cigarettes with concentrated nicotine liquids may deliver nicotine at levels similar to traditional cigarettes.[21] Many e-cigarette versions include a voltage potentiometer to adjust the volume of vapor created.[4] The amount of vapor produced is controlled by the power from the battery, which has led some users to adjust their devices to increase battery power.[6] An ordinary cigarette compared to a "cigalike" e-cigarette E-cigarettes are usually approximately cylindrical, with many variations: pen-styles, tank-styles etc.[22] Some e-cigarettes look like traditional cigarettes, but others do not.[19] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] The only exception to this are mechanical e-cigarettes (mods) which contain no electronics and the circuit is closed by using a mechanical action switch.[23] E-cigarettes are sold in disposable or reusable variants.[8] Disposable e-cigarettes are discarded once the liquid in the cartridge is used up, while rechargeable e-cigarettes may be used indefinitely.[24] A disposable e-cigarette lasts to around 400 puffs.[25] Reusable e-cigarettes are refilled by hand or exchanged for pre-filled cartridges, and general cleaning is required.[4] A wide range of disposable and reusable e-cigarettes exist.[26] Disposable e-cigarettes are offered for a few dollars, and higher-priced reusable e-cigarettes involve an up-front investment for a starter kit.[19] Some e-cigarettes have a LED at the tip to resemble the glow of burning tobacco.[21] The LED may also indicate the battery status.[1] The LED is not generally used in personal vaporizers or mods.[2] First-generation e-cigarettes usually simulated smoking implements, such as cigarettes or cigars, in their use and appearance.[10] Later-generation e-cigarettes often called mods, PVs (personal vaporizer) or APVs (advanced personal vaporizer) have an increased nicotine-dispersal performance,[10] house higher capacity batteries, and come in various shapes such as metal tubes and boxes.[27] They contain silver, steel, metals, ceramics, plastics, fibers, aluminum, rubber and spume, and lithium batteries.[28] A growing subclass of vapers called cloud-chasers configure their atomizers to produce large amounts of vapor by using low-resistance heating coils.[29] This practice is known as cloud-chasing.[30] Many e-cigarettes are made of standardized replaceable parts that are interchangeable between brands.[31] A wide array of component combinations exists.[32] Many e-cigarettes are sold with a USB charger.[33] E-cigarettes that resemble pens or USB memory sticks are also sold for those who may want to use the device unobtrusively.[34] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] Various types of e-cigarettes. First-generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] The three parts of a cigalike e-cigarette initially were a cartridge, an atomizer, and a battery.[35] A cigalike e-cigarette currently contains a cartomizer (cartridge atomizer), which is connected to a battery.[35] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[35] They may be a single unit comprising a battery, coil and filling saturated with e-juice in a single tube to be used and discarded after the battery or e-liquid is depleted.[10] They may also be a reusable device with a battery and cartridge called a cartomizer.[12] The cartomizer cartridge can be separated from the battery so the battery can be charged and the empty cartomizer replaced when the e-juice runs out.[10] The battery section may contain an electronic airflow sensor triggered by drawing breath through the device.[12] Other models use a power button that must be held during operation.[12] An LED in the power button or on the end of the device may also show when the device is vaporizing.[36] Charging is commonly accomplished with a USB charger that attaches to the battery.[37] Some manufacturers also have a cigarette pack-shaped portable charging case (PCC), which contains a larger battery capable of recharging the individual e-cigarette batteries.[38] Reusable devices can come in a kit that contains a battery, a charger, and at least one cartridge.[38] Varying nicotine concentrations are available and nicotine delivery to the user also varies based on different cartomizers, e-juice mixtures, and power supplied by the battery.[22] These manufacturing differences affect the way e-cigarettes convert the liquid solution to an aerosol, and thus the levels of ingredients, that are delivered to the user and the surrounding air for any given liquid.[22] First-generation e-cigarettes use lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] Second-generation PV. Second generation devices tend to be used by people with more experience.[12] They are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] They usually consist of two sections, basically a tank and a separate battery. Their batteries have higher capacity, and are not removable.[10] Being rechargeable, they use a USB charger that attaches to the battery with a threaded connector. Some batteries have a "passthrough" feature so they can be used even while they are charging.[40][41] Second-generation e-cigarettes commonly use a tank or a "clearomizer".[12] Clearomizer tanks are meant to be refilled with e-juice, while cartomizers are not.[10] Because they're refillable and the battery is rechargeable, their cost of operation is lower.[10] Hovever, they can also use cartomizers, which are pre-filled only.[10] Some cheaper battery sections use a microphone that detects the turbulence of the air passing through to activate the device when the user inhales.[42] Other batteries like the eGo style can use an integrated circuit, as well as a button for manual activation. The LED shows battery status.[42] The power button can also switch off the battery so it is not activated accidentally.[43] Second generation e-cigarettes may have lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] However, adjustable-voltage devices can be set between 3 V and 6 V.[44] Third-generation PV. The third-generation includes mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[45][46] Battery sections are commonly called "mods," referencing their past when user modification was common.[10] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] They are commonly cylindrical or box-shaped, and typical housing materials are wood, aluminium, stainless steel, or brass.[47] A larger "box mod" can hold bigger and sometimes multiple batteries.[47] Mechanical mods and variable devices use larger batteries than those found in previous generations.[48] Common battery sizes used are 18350, 18490, 18500 and 18650.[49] The battery is often removable,[46] so it can be changed when depleted. The battery must be removed and charged externally.[46] Variable devices permit setting wattage, voltage, or both.[40][46] These often have a USB connector for recharging; some can be used while charging, called a "passthrough" feature.[40][50] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] The power section may include additional options such as screen readout, support for a wide range of internal batteries, and compatibility with different types of atomizers.[12] Third-generation devices can have rebuildable atomizers with different wicking materials.[10][12] These rebuildables use handmade coils that can be installed in the atomizer to increase vapor production.[48] Hardware in this generation is sometimes modified to increase power or flavor.[51] The larger battery sections used also allow larger tanks to be attached that can hold more e-liquid.[47] Recent devices can go up to 8 V, which can heat the e-liquid significantly more than earlier generations.[39] A fourth-generation e-cigarette became available in the U.S. in 2014.[21] Fourth-generation e-cigarettes can be made from stainless steel and pyrex glass, and contain very little plastics.[13] Included in the fourth-generation are Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] An e-cigarette atomizer with the coil (heating element) in view. An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and a wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] Along with a battery and e-liquid the atomizer is the main component of every personal vaporizer.[12] A small length of resistance wire is coiled around the wicking material and connected to the integrated circuit, or in the case of mechanical devices, the atomizer is connected directly to the battery through either a 510, 808, or ego threaded connector.[52] 510 being the most common.[52] When activated, the resistance wire coil heats up and vaporizes the liquid, which is then inhaled by the user.[53] The electrical resistance of the coil, the voltage output of the device, the airflow of the atomizer and the efficiency of the wick all affect the vapor coming from the atomizer.[54] They also affect the vapor quantity or volume yielded.[54] Atomizer coils made of kanthal usually have resistances that vary from 0.4Ω (ohms) to 2.8Ω.[54] Coils of lower ohms have increased vapor production but could risk fire and dangerous battery failures if the user is not knowledgeable enough about electrical principles and how they relate to battery safety.[55] Wicking materials vary from one atomizer to another.[56] "Rebuildable" or "do it yourself" atomizers can use silica, cotton, rayon, porous ceramic, hemp, bamboo yarn, oxidized stainless steel mesh and even wire rope cables as wicking materials.[56] A 45mm length, extra-long cartomizer. The cartomizer was invented in 2007, integrating the heating coil into the liquid chamber.[57] A "cartomizer" (a portmanteau of cartridge and atomizer.[58]) or "carto" consists of an atomizer surrounded by a liquid-soaked poly-foam that acts as an e-liquid holder.[3] They can have up to 3 coils and each coil will increase vapor production.[3] The cartomizer is usually discarded when the e-liquid starts to taste burnt, which usually happens when the e-cigarette is activated with a dry coil or when the cartomizer gets consistently flooded (gurgling) because of sedimentation of the wick.[3] Most cartomizers are refillable even if not advertised as such.[3][59] Cartomizers can be used on their own or in conjunction with a tank that allows more e-liquid capacity.[3] The portmanteau word "cartotank" has been coined for this.[60] When used in a tank, the cartomizer is inserted in a plastic, glass or metal tube and holes or slots have to be punched on the sides of the cartomizer so liquid can reach the coil.[3] eGo style e-cigarette with a top-coil clearomizer. Silica fibers are hanging down freely inside of the tank, drawing e-liquid by capillary action to the coil that is located directly under the mouthpiece. The clearomizer was invented in 2009 that originated from the cartomizer design.[57] It contained the wicking material, an e-liquid chamber, and an atomizer coil within a single clear component.[57] This allows the user to monitor the liquid level in the device.[57] Clearomizers or "clearos", are like cartotanks, in that an atomizer is inserted into the tank.[61] There are different wicking systems used inside clearomizers.[3] Some rely on gravity to bring the e-liquid to the wick and coil assembly (bottom coil clearomizers for example) and others rely on capillary action or to some degree the user agitating the e-liquid while handling the clearomizer (top coil clearomizers).[3][62] The coil and wicks are typically inside a prefabricated assembly or "head" that is replaceable by the user.[63] Clearomizers are made with adjustable air flow control.[64] Tanks can be plastic or borosilicate glass.[65] Some flavors of e-juice have been known to damage plastic clearomizer tanks.[65] Box mod e-cigarette fitted with a rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA). A view of the RDA deck showing the wicks and coils, juice is dripped into a hopper where the wicks rest as well as atop the coil assembly. A rebuildable atomizer or an RBA is an atomizer that allows the user to assemble or "build" the wick and coil themselves instead of replacing them with off-the-shelf atomizer "heads".[10] They are generally considered advanced devices.[66] They also allow the user to build atomizers at any desired electrical resistance.[10] These atomizers are divided into two main categories; rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) and rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs).[67] Rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) have a tank to hold liquid that is absorbed by the wick.[68] They can hold up to 4ml of e-liquid.[69] The tank can be either plastic, glass, or metal.[65] One form of tank atomizers was the Genesis style atomizers.[68] They can use ceramic wicks, stainless steel mesh or rope for wicking material.[68] The steel wick must be oxidized to prevent arcing of the coil.[68] Another type is the Sub ohm tank.[69] These tanks have rebuildabe or RBA kits.[69] They can also use coilheads of 0.2ohm 0.4hom and 0.5ohm.[69] These coilheads can have stainless steel coils.[70] Rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs) are atomizers where the e-juice is dripped directly onto the coil and wick.[71] The common nicotine strength of e-liquids used in RDA's is 3 mg and 6 mg.[71] Liquids used in RDA's tend to have more vegetable glycerin.[71] They typically consist only of an atomizer "building deck", commonly with three posts with holes drilled in them, which can accept one or more coils.[51] The user needs to manually keep the atomizer wet by dripping liquid on the bare wick and coil assembly, hence their name.[71] Kanthal wire is commonly used in both RDA's and RTA's.[71] They can also use nickel wire or titanium wire for temperature control.[71] Variable devices are variable wattage, variable voltage or both.[40][46] Variable power and/or variable voltage have a electronic chip allowing the user to adjust the power applied to the heating element.[12][46] The amount of power applied to the coil affects the heat produced, thus changing the vapor output.[12][32] Greater heat from the coil increases vapor production.[32] Variable power devices monitor the coil's resistance and automatically adjust the voltage to apply the user-specified level of power to the coil.[72] Recent devices can go up to 8 V.[39] They are often rectangular but can also be cylindrical.[47] They usually have a screen to show information such as voltage, power, and resistance of the coil.[73] To adjust the settings, the user presses buttons or rotates a dial to turn the power up or down.[32] Some of these devices include additional settings through their menu system such as: atomizer resistance meter, remaining battery voltage, puff counter, and power-off or lock.[74] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[4] Smaller devices contain smaller batteries and are easier to carry but typically require more repeated recharging.[4] Some e-cigarettes use a long lasting rechargeable battery, a non-rechargeable battery or a replaceable battery that is either rechargeable or non-rechargeable for power.[26] Some companies offer portable chargeable cases to recharge e-cigarettes.[26] Nickel-cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal-hydride (NiMh), lithium ion (Li-ion), alkaline and lithium polymer (Li-poly), and lithium manganese (LiMn) batteries have been used for the e-cigarettes power source.[26] PV with variable and regulated power offering battery protection. Temperature control devices allow the user to set the temperature.[71] There is a predictable change to the resistance of a coil when it is heated.[75] The resistance changes are different for different types of wires, and must have a high temperature coefficient of resistance.[75] Temperature control is done by detecting that resistance change to estimate the temperature and adjusting the voltage to the coil to match that estimate.[76] Nickel, titanium, NiFe alloys, and certain grades of stainless steel are common materials used for wire in temperature control.[71] The most common wire used, kanthal, cannot be used because it has a stable resistance regardless of the coil temperature.[75] Nickel was the first wire used because of it has the highest coefficient of the common metals.[75] Mechanical PV with a rebuildable atomizer. The temperature can be adjusted in Celsius or Fahrenheit.[77] The DNA40 and SX350J are common control boards used in temperature control devices.[78] Temperature control can stop dry wicks from burning, or e-liquid overheating.[78] Mechanical PVs or mechanical "mods", often called "mechs", are devices without integrated circuits, electronic battery protection, or voltage regulation.[46] They are activated by a switch.[71] They rely on the natural voltage output of the battery and the metal that the mod is made of often is used as part of the circuit itself.[79] The term "mod" was originally used instead of "modification".[10] Users would modify existing hardware to get better performance, and as an alternative to the e-cigarettes that looked like traditional cigarettes.[32] Users would also modify other unrelated items like flashlights as battery compartments to power atomizers.[32][47] The word mod is often used to describe most personal vaporizers.[3] Mechanical PVs have no power regulation and are unprotected.[71] Because of this ensuring that the battery does not over-discharge and that the resistance of the atomizer requires amperage within the safety limits of the battery is the responsibility of the user.[79]


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK

Uk E Liquid Shop UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

E Vape Electronic Cigarette

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

The entering into force of the requirements of the European tobacco products directive in Estonia made e-cigarette seller Nicorex Baltic destroy 19,000 bottles of e-cigarette liquid worth €135 000, as the packaging size did not meet the new requirements.

The liquids were actually in order, had undergone laboratory testing and met the new requirements, but their packaging did not have the necessary warnings on them and the boxes did not contain instructions.

Nicorex said that the transition period allowed by the government was too short, as the shelf life of the liquids was two years, but the length of the transition period only one year.

At the same time, Nicorex welcomed the requirement that the liquids have to undergo laboratory testing and that both the equipment and liquids must be registered in a single European database.

Nicorex described the restrictions concerning the size of packaging as unreasonable, as they increased the ecological footprint.

The transition period under the new tobacco law arising from the European tobacco products directive will end on May 20, after which the stricter requirements will apply to e-cigarettes in full.

Liquids can't be sold in containers bigger than 10 ml, they can't contain more nicotine than 20 milligrams per milliliter, and the vaporizer can't be bigger than 2 ml.

The packaging needs to include a leaflet, instructions, a batch number, a date, and a warning that nicotine is an addictive substance.

Smoking Vapor Electronic Cigarette

2017 Beyond the Data -- E-cigarettes: An Emerging Public Health Challenge

 UK

[Thorpe] Welcometo Beyond the Data.

I'm Dr.

Phoebe Thorpe, and herewith me today is Dr.

Brian King from CDC's Office onSmoking and Health.

Thank you for joining us Brian.

[King] Thanks somuch for having me.

It's a pleasure to be here.

[Thorpe] Our topictoday is E-cigarettes.

Can you tell us why they areconsidered a tobacco product? [King] Yes, so in the UnitedStates we regulate tobacco products through the US Foodand Drug Administration, and the way they describe atobacco product is any product that's made or derivedfrom tobacco.

And we know that the vastmajority of nicotine that's used in tobacco products,including e-cigarettes, is indeed derived from tobacco.

So since these productscontain nicotine, we consider them a tobaccoproduct in the United States.

[Thorpe] And E-cigarettesare little bit different than regular cigarettes.

Can you describe how they work? [King] Yeah, so E-cigarettes isshort for electronic cigarettes, but we know them by alot of different names.

And they can be calledthings like vapor products, hookah pens, vape pens, butthe bottom line is they're all really the same product.

And they work by containinga liquid that's heated which the user then inhales intotheir lungs, and it's important to note that this isn'ttechnically a vapor which is how peoplefrequently refer to.

It's actually an aerosol thatcontains small particles as well as various other ingredientsthat the user inhales, and so there's no combustion.

You're not burning anything, butthere is a heating of the liquid which turns into an aerosolwhich the user inhales.

And they can alsoexhale into the air as other bystandersare around them.

[Thorpe] And the aerosolis not just water vapor.

I mean, that's animportant part to understand because I get asked as aphysician about E-cigarettes, and the thing from the session that I found veryinteresting was the idea that were not reallycertain about the risks that flavorings addto E-cigarettes.

The one that was mentioned wasthe butter flavoring Diacetyl that has been associatedwith bronchiolitis obliterans or what's called popcorn lung,which is a deadly disease.

What more do we know aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes? [King] So our knowledgeabout what's contained in both the E-cigaretteliquid as well as the aerosol hascontinued to evolve over time that these products enteredthe United States marketplace in around 2007.

They didn't really start touptick in use until 2010, 2011.

But, since that time, we reallyincreased the amount of research into what these productscontain.

And what we can say isthat the aerosol admitted by these productsis not harmless.

We do know that the ingredients and the levels aresignificantly less dangerous than conventional cigarettes,but that doesn't mean that they're completelyrisk-free.

And so, some of theingredients we found in the E-cigaretteaerosol are things like ultrafine particulatethat can be inhaled very deep into the lungs, and alsoheavy metals that are found in the filaments of the deviceand are omitted in the aerosol, as well as, things likevolatile organic compounds.

But one of the most commoningredients is nicotine, and we know that nicotineis highly addictive.

But there's alsoevidence indicating that it can harm thedeveloping adolescent brain which really makes itimportant for youth to avoid these devices.

In addition to some of theseother harmful ingredients, we also know the flavorings.

And so, Diacetyl is justone, but there are a variety of different flavoringsthat are used that, although they may be safe toingest in things like food, we don't know what the risks are for inhaling thesedevices into the lungs.

You know, your gut can handlea lot more than your lungs, and that's reallyimportant when we look at the ingredientsin these products.

And finally, it's alsoimportant to remember that people are using a lotof things in E-cigarettes, and that includes otherpsychoactive substances like marijuana andTHC and others.

And so, when we are talkingabout youth in particular, the use of both the nicotinecontaining varieties as well as other varietiesfor other types of drugs are really apublic health concern.

[Thorpe] Okay.

But we have had somerecent good news about the youth meaningmiddle school and high school useof E-cigarettes.

Can you tell me about that? [King] Yes.

It's really a commendablepublic health accomplishment.

We started assessing E-cigaretteuse among youth in this country in 2011, and through 2015,we saw exponential increases in the use of this product.

And 2016 was the first time that we actually saw declineamong youth in this country, and that was really a resultof the coordinated efforts to not only educate thepublic about the harms of youth E-cigarette use but also implementingcommon sense strategies to not only prevent youth accessbut also to protect people from the aerosol andpublic environments and various other campaigns to educate peopleabout these products.

But, on balance, the badnews is that we still have over 2 million youth thatare using E-cigarettes, and they're now the mostcommonly used tobacco products used among US youth.

So we made great progress,but we really need to continue that momentum toreduce all forms of tobacco productuse among youth.

[Thorpe] So it's going down, butnot as lot much as we'd like.

So what's driving the use ofthe E-cigarettes in teens? [King] So there's avariety of factors that we believe are contributingto these increased rates of use among youth thatwe saw through 2015.

One of the most notable is theadvertising for these products.

We know that many of the themesand tactics that have been used to advertise conventionalcigarettes are frequently used for E-cigarettes.

And we also know thatthere's some media of for which conventional cigaretteadvertising is banned that is allowed forE-cigarettes.

Things like television.

And so, there's reallya prominent advertising of these products, and we know that it's reachingkids in particular.

About 18 million US youthreported being exposed to E-cigarette ads in 2014.

Another factor isflavorings, and we know, from the existing science, that flavorings can beparticularly appealing in terms of enticing youth and youngadults to use tobacco products.

And a variety of E-cigarettesare flavored, and we know, from the existing data, thatabout two thirds of youth who use these cigarettes reportusing flavored varieties, and flavors are the mostcommonly cited reason for why youth startedusing these products.

And so, in the end, wereally have a situation where you know the advertisingis bringing the horse to water.

The flavorings aregetting them to drink, and then the nicotine is keepingthem coming back for more.

And so, it's kind of aperfect storm in terms of the youth rates of this use.

But the good news is, we knowwhat works to prevent that.

And if we implement those commonsense public health strategies, we can continue to seethe declines that we saw within the past yearamong our nation's youth.

[Thorpe] And the realconcern is about nicotine and the teenage brain.

Can you just briefly tell mea little bit more about that? [King] Yeah.

So nicotine is found in thevast majority of E-cigarettes that are sold on the U.

S.

marketand, you know, nicotine we use in things like nicotinereplacement therapy among adults.

And it can be, youknow, an effective drug to help people quitconventional cigarette smoking.

But it's important to note thatthose are in very measured doses and weans the individual off of conventional cigarettesover time.

But nicotine is notnecessarily risk-free.

Particularly forvulnerable populations.

We know that nicotineis highly addictive, but there's also a growingbody of scientific evidence that was outlined in a recentSurgeon General's Report noting that nicotine exposure can harmthe developing adolescent brain.

And we know that thebrain continues to develop into young adulthood upthrough 25 or 26, and so, there's really implicationsfor not only youth use of these products butalso young adult use of any nicotine containingproduct.

And another thing to remember with nicotine is it'salso been shown to result in adverse health outcomesamong pregnant women in particularly fetal toxicity.

So there's also implications about pregnant womenusing any form of nicotine containing product,and so, it's really important for them to talk with theirphysician before they use any type of nicotine containingproduct including E-cigarettes.

[Thorpe] So is there a placethat physicians could go to learn a little bitmore about these parts with the E-cigarettesand the nicotine? [King] So there's many resourcesthat have been developed over the past fewyears, particularly as the sciences begun to grow.

And we have, you know,more concrete evidence about what works effectivelyto help warn people about these products and alsoprovide them scientific-based information to makeinformed decisions.

And in 2016, the U.

S.

SurgeonGeneral released a landmark report on E-cigarette useamong youth and young adults.

And as part of therelease of that report, there were severalmaterials including resources and provider cards to helphealth professionals really communicate to both childrenand adults about these products.

And so, in the context of youth, it really enforces theimportance of warning them about the dangersof these products.

Particularly with regardto the nicotine content.

And among adults, it's amore nuanced conversation about knowing that we dohave FDA approved medications to help people quit, and thoseshould really be the first line of defense to help you quit.

And if that doesn't work, youcan consider E-cigarettes, but in consultation withyour healthcare provider.

And right now, based onthe evidence we have, there is no conclusive evidencethat E-cigarettes are effective for long-term cessation, andso, it's really important to use those resources thatwe know are most effective to help you quitand in coordination with your healthcare provider.

[Thorpe] And then foryouth, where if parents or other adults wanted to knowmore about how they could talk to teens and young adults aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes, where would they find someinformation about that? [King] So as part of the releaseof the Surgeon General's Report, there's an excellent interactivewebsite that was coordinated with the release of that report, and it isE-cigarettes.

Surgeongeneral.

Gov.

And it has a varietyof information on both the reportitself as well as a public service announcementas well as informational cards for both parents andclinicians to educate our youth and young adults in particularabout the dangers and risks of using these products.

[Thorpe] That sounds like anexcellent place for our viewers to go and see whatthey can find out.

Thank you very muchfor joining us.

[King] Thank you verymuch for having me.

[Thorpe] And thankyou for joining us.

See you next monthon Beyond the Data.


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK

E Cigarettes Uk Where To Buy UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

Blue Electronic Cigarette

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

Various types of e-cigarettes.

Electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes[note 1] are handheld electronic devices that try to create a feeling like smoking tobacco. They work by heating a liquid to generate an aerosol, commonly called a "vapor", that the user inhales.[2] Using e-cigarettes is sometimes called vaping.[4] The liquid in the e-cigarette, called e-liquid,[5] is usually made of nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerine, and flavorings.[6] Not all e-liquids contain nicotine.[7]

The health risks of e-cigarettes are uncertain.[8][9][10] They are likely safer than tobacco cigarettes,[11][12] but the long-term health effects are not known.[13][14][15][16][17] They can help some smokers quit.[6][18] When used by non-smokers, e-cigarettes can lead to nicotine addiction, and there is concern that children could start smoking after using e-cigarettes.[19] According to some US sources, minors who use e-cigarettes are more likely to smoke later in life.[20][21] Public Health England attributes this link to a liability for the use of both products rather than one resulting in the other.[15][22] So far, no serious adverse effects have been reported in trials.[6] Less serious adverse effects include throat and mouth irritation, vomiting, nausea, and coughing.[23]

E-cigarettes create an aerosol, commonly called vapor,[23][24] generally containing nicotine, flavors, glycerol and propylene glycol.[25] Its exact composition varies.[24] The majority of toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are absent in e-cigarette aerosol.[26][27] Those present are mostly below 1% corresponding levels in tobacco smoke.[28][29] The aerosol can contain toxicants and traces of heavy metals at levels permissible in inhalation medicines,[25] and potentially harmful chemicals not found in tobacco smoke at concentrations permissible by workplace safety standards.[28] However, chemical concentrations may exceed the stricter public safety limits.[23]

The modern e-cigarette was invented in 2003 by Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik,[30] and as of 2015 most e-cigarettes are made in China.[31] Since they were first sold in 2004 their global use has risen exponentially.[32] In the United States and the United Kingdom their use is widespread, and some US schoolchildren use them.[33] Reasons for using e-cigarettes involve trying to quit smoking, reduce risk, or save money, though many use them recreationally.[13] A majority of users still smoke tobacco, causing concerns that dual use may "delay or deter quitting".[23] About 60% of UK users are smokers and roughly 40% are ex-smokers, while use among never-smokers is "negligible".[34] Because of overlap with tobacco laws and medical drug policies, e-cigarette legislation is debated in many countries.[35] A European directive in 2016, set limits for liquids and vaporizers, ingredients, and child-proof liquid containers.[36] As of August 2016, the US FDA extended its regulatory power to include e-cigarettes.[37] There are around 500 brands of e-cigarette with global sales in excess of US$7 billion.[38]

Electronic cigarettes are also known as e-cigarettes, e-cigs, EC,[1] electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) or electronic non-nicotine delivery systems (ENNDS),[2] personal vaporizers, or PVs.[3] They are handheld devices, often made to look like conventional cigarettes, and used in a similar way.[2][39] E-liquid[5] or juice are names for the flavored solution that goes inside the e-cigarette.[40] An aerosol, or vapor, is produced by heating the e-liquid.[41] Irish public health discussions refer to NMNDS ("non-medicinal nicotine delivery systems").[42]

Aerosol (vapor) exhaled by an e-cigarette user.

Since their introduction to the market in 2004, global usage of e-cigarettes has risen exponentially.[32] By 2013, there were several million users globally.[43] Awareness and use of e-cigarettes greatly increased in a relatively short period of time.[44] However, growth in the US and UK had reportedly slowed in 2015, lowering market forecasts for 2016.[45][46]

Most users have a history of smoking regular cigarettes.[47] At least 52% of smokers or ex-smokers have vaped.[31] Of smokers who have, less than 15% became everyday e-cigarette users.[6] Though e-cigarette use among those who have never smoked is very low, it continues to rise.[48] A survey of e-cigarette users conducted from 2011–2012 found that only 1% of respondents used liquid without nicotine.[49]

Everyday use is common among e-cigarette users.[50] Vapers mostly keep smoking,[23] although many say vaping helps them cut down or quit smoking.[25][47] Most e-cigarette users are middle-aged men who also smoke traditional cigarettes, either to help them quit or for recreational use.[13] E-cigarette use was also rising among women as of 2014.[51] Some young people who have tried an e-cigarette have never smoked tobacco, so ECs can be a starting point for nicotine use.[23] On the other hand, Public Health England found no evidence e-cigarettes increase teen tobacco smoking. They noted tentative evidence that e-cigarettes divert youth away from cigarettes.[12] A 2014 review raised ethical concerns about minors' e-cigarette use and the potential to weaken cigarette smoking reduction efforts.[52]

In the US, as of 2014, 12.6% of adults had used an e-cigarette at least once and approximately 3.7% were still using them.[53] 1.1% of adults were daily users.[54] Non-smokers and former smokers who had quit more than four years earlier were extremely unlikely to be current users.[54] Former smokers who had recently quit were more than four times as likely to be daily users as current smokers.[54] Experimentation was more common among younger adults, but daily users were more likely to be older adults.[54]

Play media National Institute on Drug Abuse director Nora Volkow discussing a study that shows teens using e-cigarettes are more likely to start smoking tobacco.[55]

The recent decline in smoking has accompanied a rapid growth in the use of alternative nicotine products among young people and young adults.[56] In the US, vaping among young people exceeded smoking in 2014.[57] As of 2014, up to 13% of American high school students have used them.[33] Between 2013 and 2014, vaping among students tripled.[58] In 2013 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that around 160,000 students between 2011 and 2012 who had tried vaping had never smoked.[56] E-cigarette use among never-smoking youth in the US correlates with elevated desires to use traditional cigarettes.[8] Teenagers who had used an e-cigarette were more inclined to become smokers than those who had not.[59] In the 2015 Monitoring the Future survey, a majority of students who used electronic cigarettes reported using liquid without nicotine the last time they vaped.[60] The majority of young people who vape also smoke.[61] A 2010–2011 survey of students at two US high schools found that vapers were more likely to use hookah and blunts than smokers.[62] Among grade 6 to 12 students in the US, the proportion who have tried them rose from 3.3% in 2011 to 6.8% in 2012.[47] Those still vaping over the last month rose from 1.1% to 2.1% and dual use rose from 0.8% to 1.6%.[47] Over the same period, the proportion of grade-6-to-12 students who regularly smoke tobacco fell from 7.5% to 6.7%.[63]

In the UK, user numbers have increased from 700,000 in 2012 to 2.6 million in 2015, but use by current smokers remained flat at 17.6% from 2014 into 2015 (in 2010, it was 2.7%).[34] About one in 20 adults in the UK uses e-cigarettes.[64] In the UK in 2015, 18% of regular smokers said they used e-cigarettes and 59% said they had used them in the past.[34] Among those who had never smoked, 1.1% said they had tried them and 0.2% still use them.[65] In 2013, among those under 18, 7% have used e-cigarettes at least once.[65] Among non-smokers' children, 1% reported having tried e-cigarettes "once or twice", and there was no evidence of continued use.[65] About 60% of all users are smokers and most of the rest are ex-smokers, with "negligible" numbers of never-smokers.[66] In 2015 figures showed around 2% monthly EC-usage among under-18s, and 0.5% weekly, and despite experimentation, "nearly all those using EC regularly were cigarette smokers".[67] 10–11-year-old Welsh never-smokers are more likely to use e-cigarettes if a parent used e-cigarettes.[68]

In France in 2014, between 7.7 and 9.2 million people have tried e-cigarettes and 1.1 to 1.9 million use them on a daily basis.[69] 67% of French smokers use e-cigarettes to reduce or quit smoking. Of French people who have tried e-cigarettes, 9% have never smoked tobacco.[69] Of the 1.2% who had recently stopped tobacco smoking at the time of the survey, 84% (or 1% of the population surveyed) credited e-cigarettes as essential in quitting.[69]

The frequency of vaping in youth is low.[70] Minors who use one tobacco product such as e-cigarettes are more likely to later use other tobacco products such as cigarettes,[20] which likely arises from a common liability for the use of both products.[15] Young people who vape but do not smoke are more likely to try smoking than their peers who do not vape.[71]

E-cigarettes often have a high-tech look.[72] Candy, fruit and coffee flavored e-liquid.[73]

Reasons for e-cigarette use often relate to quitting smoking and recreation.[13][50][74] Many users believe vaping is healthier than smoking, although some are concerned about possible adverse health effects.[50] Some use them to circumvent smoke-free laws and policies, or to cut back on cigarette smoking.[23] 56% of respondents in a US 2013 survey had tried vaping to quit or reduce their smoking.[9] In the same survey, 26% of respondents would use them in areas where smoking was banned.[9] Not having odor from smoke on clothes on some occasions prompted interest in or use of e-cigarettes.[50] Many e-cigarette users use them because they believe they are safer than conventional cigarettes.[74]

Non-smoking adults tried e-cigarettes due to curiosity, because a relative was using them, or because they were given one.[62] College students often vape for experimentation.[75] Expensive marketing aimed at smokers suggests e-cigarettes are "newer, healthier, cheaper and easier to use in smoke-free situations, all reasons that e-cigarette users claim motivate their use".[76] Exposure to e-cigarette advertising influenced people to try them.[59]

Some researchers are concerned about vaping during pregnancy.[8][77] E-cigarettes feel or taste similar to traditional cigarettes, and vapers disagreed about whether this was a benefit or a drawback.[50] The majority of committed e-cigarette users interviewed at an e-cigarette convention found them cheaper than traditional cigarettes.[50]

Some users stopped vaping due to issues with the devices.[50] Dissatisfaction and concerns over safety can discourage ongoing e-cigarette use.[64] Some surveys found that a small percentage of users' motives were to avoid smoking bans, but other surveys found that over 40% of users said they used the device for this reason.[50]

The health and lifestyle appeal may also encourage young non-smokers to use e-cigarettes, as they may perceive that trying e-cigarettes is less risky and more socially appealing. This may decrease negative beliefs or concerns about nicotine addiction.[73] Marketing might appeal to young people as well as adults.[78] Adolescent experimenting with e-cigarettes may be sensation seeking behavior, and is not likely to be associated with tobacco reduction or quitting smoking.[8] Young people may view e-cigarettes as a symbol of rebellion.[48] The main reasons young people experimented with e-cigarettes were due to curiosity, flavors, and peer influences.[79] The National Association of County and City Health Officials say there is concern that e-cigarettes may appeal to youth because of their high-tech design, assortment of flavors, and accessibility online.[72] The Heart and Stroke Foundation claims that candy and fruit flavored e-cigarettes are designed to appeal to young people.[80] Infants and toddlers could ingest the e-liquid from an e-cigarette device out of curiosity.[81]

Users may begin by trying a disposable e-cigarette.[70] Users often start with e-cigarettes resembling normal cigarettes, eventually moving to a later-generation device.[82] Most later-generation e-cigarette users shifted to their present device to get a "more satisfying hit",[82] and users may adjust their devices to provide more vapor for better "throat hits".[83]

Special e-liquid mixes with THC or other cannabinoids are sold.[84]

The emergence of e-cigs has given cannabis smokers a new method of inhaling cannabinoids.[84] E-cigs differ from traditional marijuana cigarettes in several respects.[84] It is assumed that vaporizing cannabinoids at lower temperatures is safer because it produces smaller amounts of toxic substances than the hot combustion of a marijuana cigarette.[84] Recreational cannabis users can discreetly "vape" deodorized cannabis extracts with minimal annoyance to the people around them and less chance of detection, known as "stealth vaping".[84] While cannabis is not readily soluble in the liquid used for e-cigs, recipes containing synthetic cannabinoids which are soluble may be found on the Internet.[84]

E-cigarettes may be used with other substances and cartridges can potentially be filled with e-liquid containing substances other than nicotine, thus serving as a new and potentially dangerous way to deliver other psychoactive drugs,[85] for example THC.[84]

Cannabinoid-enriched e-liquids require lengthy, complex processing. Some are available on the Internet despite lack of quality control, expiry date, conditions of preservation, or any toxicological and clinical assessment.[84] The health consequences of vaping cannabis preparations are largely unknown.[84]

Exploded view of electronic cigarette with transparent clearomizer and changeable dual-coil head. This model allows for a wide range of settings.[86] Electronic cigarettes can come in very different forms—such as this hand-grenade-shaped variant.

The main components of an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[87] The only exception to this are mechanical e-cigarettes (mods) which contain no electronics; the circuit is closed by a mechanical action switch.[88] An atomizer comprises a small heating element, or coil, that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[89] When the user pushes a button,[75] or (in some variations) activates a pressure sensor by inhaling, the heating element atomizes the liquid solution.[13] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor,[90] which the user then inhales, rather than cigarette smoke.[24] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[91]

There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[92] First generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[93] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[94] A traditional cigarette is smooth and light while a cigalike is rigid and slightly heavier.[91] Second generation devices are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[95] Third generation devices include mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[93] The fourth generation includes Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[96] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[32] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[97]

E-liquid is the mixture used in vapor products such as e-cigarettes[98] and generally consists of propylene glycol, glycerin, water, nicotine, and flavorings.[18] While the ingredients vary[6][70][98] the liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin.[99] There are many e-liquids manufacturers in the USA and worldwide,[100] and upwards of 8,000 flavors.[38] While there are currently no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid, the FDA has proposed regulations that were expected to be finalized in late 2015.[100][needs update] Industry standards have been created and published by the American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA).[101]

Main article: Positions of medical organizations on electronic cigarettes 2014 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) press release about e-cigarettes.[102]

Medical organizations differ about the health implications of vaping.[103] Many medical organizations have made statements about their health and safety. There is general agreement that e-cigarettes expose users to fewer toxicants than tobacco.[6][103] International organizations have hesitated to recommend e-cigarettes for quitting smoking, because of limited evidence of effectiveness and safety.[19][44][104] Some from the UK have recommended their use by smokers unwilling or unable to quit.[105][106]

In August 2016, a World Health Organization (WHO) report found "there is not enough research to quantify the relative risk of ENDS/ENNDS over combustible products. Therefore, no specific figure about how much 'safer' the use of these products is compared to smoking can be given any scientific credibility at this time."[107] In July 2014, a WHO report found limited evidence that e-cigarettes may help some smokers quit, but did not reach conclusions.[19] Smokers should be encouraged to use approved methods for help with quitting,[19] although e-cigarettes may have a role in helping those who have failed to quit by other means.[19] Smokers will get the maximum health benefit if they completely quit all nicotine use.[19] A policy briefing by the Framework Convention Alliance notes widespread agreement that e-cigarettes are "almost certainly considerably less hazardous for individuals than cigarettes", but also notes widespread disagreement on the likelihood and impact of dual use, uptake by never-smokers, and re-normalisation of smoking.[103] The World Lung Foundation has applauded the WHO report's recommendation of tighter regulation due to safety concerns and the risk of increased nicotine addiction or tobacco use among young people.[108]

In a 2015 joint statement, Public Health England and twelve other UK medical bodies concluded "e-cigarettes are significantly less harmful than smoking".[29] PHE also stated that e-cigarettes are estimated to be 95% less harmful than smoking.[109] The UK National Health Service believes that e-cigarettes have about 5% of the risk of tobacco cigarettes,[110] but also feels there will not be a complete understanding of their safety for many years.[110] There are clinical trials in progress to test the quality, safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes, but until these are complete the NHS maintains that the government could not give any advice on them or to recommend their use.[111] In 2016, the Royal College of Physicians called to "promote e-cigarettes widely as substitute for smoking", concluding that "e-cigarettes are likely to be beneficial to UK public health".[15][112]

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a 2016 report titled E-cigarette Ads and Youth which concerned marketing towards adolescents.[113]

In 2016, the FDA stated its position that e-cigarettes are "likely less hazardous for an individual user than continued smoking of traditional cigarettes", but that the net population effect is unknown.[16] In 2015, the United States Preventive Services Task Force concluded there is insufficient evidence to recommend e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, and recommended clinicians instead recommend more proven smoking cessation aids.[114] The National Institute on Drug Abuse raises concern over the possibility that they could perpetuate nicotine addiction and thus interfere with quitting.[115] In 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics strongly recommended against using e-cigarettes to quit smoking, stating that for adolescents e-cigarettes are not effective in treating tobacco dependence.[116] In August 2014, the American Heart Association released a policy statement concluding that while e-cigarette aerosol is much less toxic then cigarette smoke, there is insufficient evidence for clinicians to counsel smokers to use them as a primary cessation aid. If a patient failed initial treatment or refuses to use cessation medication, and wishes to use e-cigarettes to quit, it is reasonable to support the attempt after informing about the uncertainties.[117] In 2014, the US FDA said "E-cigarettes have not been fully studied, so consumers currently don't know: the potential risks of e-cigarettes when used as intended, how much nicotine or other potentially harmful chemicals are being inhaled during use, or whether there are any benefits associated with using these products. Additionally, it is not known whether e-cigarettes may lead young people to try other tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes, which are known to cause disease and lead to premature death."[104]

Play media CDC launches "Tips From Former Smokers" ad campaign in 2015. The main information on e-cigarettes begins at 24:45.[118]

The available research on e-cigarette use for smoking cessation is limited to three randomized controlled trials and some user surveys, case reports, and cohort studies.[119] Some consider the evidence contradictory,[9][117] while others attribute negative outcomes to inappropriate study design.[6][105][120] Some medical authorities recommend that e-cigarettes have a role in smoking cessation, and others disagree. On the one hand, Public Health England recommends that stop-smoking practitioners should (1) advise people who want to quit to try e-cigarettes if they are failing with conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); and (2) advise people who cannot or do not want to quit to switch to e-cigarettes.[29] On the other hand, the United States Preventive Services Task Force advised only use of conventional NRT products in smoking cessation and found insufficient evidence to recommend e-cigarettes for this purpose.[9]

There is tentative evidence that they can help people quit smoking,[6] but studies pertaining to their potential impact on smoking cessation and reduction is very limited.[121] However, a 2016 meta-analysis based on 20 different studies found that smokers who used electronic cigarettes were 28% less likely to quit than those who had not tried electronic cigarettes.[122] This finding persisted whether the smokers were initially interested in quitting or not.[122] A 2015 meta-analysis on clinical trials found that nicotine-containing e-liquids are more effective than nicotine-free ones for quitting smoking. They compared their finding that nicotine-containing e-cigarettes helped 20% of people quit with the results from other studies that found conventional NRT helps 10% of people quit.[123] There has only been one study directly comparing first generation e-cigarettes to conventional NRT as smoking cessation tools, so the comparative effectiveness is not known.[123] Two 2016 reviews found a trend towards benefit of e-cigarettes with nicotine for smoking cessation, but that the evidence was of low quality.[124][125] Another 2016 review found that the combined abstinence rate among smokers using e-cigarettes in prospective studies was 29.1%. The same review noted that few clinical trials had yet been conducted on their effectiveness, and only one had included a group using other cessation methods.[126]

However, e-cigarettes have not been subject to the same efficacy testing as nicotine replacement products. Several authorities, including the World Health Organisation, take the view that there is not enough evidence to recommend e-cigarettes for quitting smoking in adults,[9] and there are studies showing a decline in smoking cessation among dual users.[122] A 2014 review found that e-cigarettes do not seem to improve cessation rates compared to regulated nicotine replacement products, and a trial found 29% of e-cigarette users were still vaping at 6 months, but only 8% of patch users still wore patches at 6 months.[47] There is low-quality evidence that vaping assists smokers to quit smoking in the long-term compared with nicotine-free vaping.[127] Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes were associated with greater effectiveness for quitting smoking than e-cigarettes without nicotine.[123] E-cigarettes without nicotine may reduce tobacco cravings because of the smoking-related physical stimuli.[128]

Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is replacing tobacco cigarettes with lower risk products to reduce death and disease.[129] THR has been controversial out of fear that tobacco companies cannot be trusted to make products that will reduce this risk.[128] E-cigarettes can reduce smokers' exposure to carcinogens and other toxic substances found in tobacco.[128][130]

Tobacco smoke contains 100 known carcinogens, and 900 potentially cancer causing chemicals,[98] none of which has been found in more than trace quantities in e-cigarette vapor.[128] While e-cigarettes cannot be considered "safe" because there is no safe level for carcinogens, they are doubtless safer than tobacco cigarettes.[128] E-cigarettes are not dangerous enough to warrant serious public health concerns given the known risks of conventional cigarettes. The same review concluded that evidence supported "the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking", provided efforts were also made to protect vulnerable groups from e-cigarettes.[131]

A core concern is that smokers who could have quit completely will develop an alternative nicotine addiction instead.[128] A 2014 review stated that promotion of vaping as a harm reduction aid is premature,[132] but they could help to lower tobacco-related death and disease if examined more thoroughly.[18] Another review found that compared with cigarettes, e-cigarettes are likely to be much less, if at all, harmful to users or bystanders.[25] The authors warned against the potential harm of excessive regulation and advised health professionals to consider advising smokers who are reluctant to quit by other methods to switch to e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to smoking.[25] A 2015 Public Health England report concluded that e-cigarette use "releases negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air with no identified health risks to bystanders".[133] A 2014 review recommended that regulations for e-cigarettes could be similar to those for dietary supplements or cosmetic products to not limit their potential for harm reduction.[134] A 2012 review found e-cigarettes could considerably reduce traditional cigarettes use and they likely could be used as a lower risk replacement for traditional cigarettes, but there is not enough data on their safety and efficacy to draw definite conclusions.[91] E-cigarette use for risk reduction in high-risk groups such as people with mental disorders is unavailable.[135]

Hazards associated with products currently on the market are probably low, and certainly much lower than smoking. However, harms could be reduced further through appropriate product standards.[26] Many smokers want to reduce harm from smoking by using these products.[26] The British Medical Association encourages health professionals to recommend conventional nicotine replacement therapies, but for patients unwilling to use or continue using such methods, health professionals may present e-cigarettes as a lower-risk option than tobacco smoking.[136] The American Association of Public Health Physicians (AAPHP) suggests those who are unwilling to quit tobacco smoking or unable to quit with medical advice and pharmaceutical methods should consider other nicotine containing products such as electronic cigarettes and smokeless tobacco for long term use instead of smoking.[137] In an interview, the director of the Office on Smoking and Health for the U.S. federal agency Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) believes that there is enough evidence to say that using e-cigarettes is likely less harmful than smoking a pack of conventional cigarettes.[138] However, due to the lack of regulation of the contents of e-cigarettes and the presence of nicotine, the CDC has issued warnings.[138] A 2014 WHO report concluded that some smokers will switch completely to e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco but a "sizeable" number will use both.[19] This report found that such "dual use" of e-cigarettes and tobacco "will have much smaller beneficial effects on overall survival compared with quitting smoking completely."[19]

Main articles: Safety of electronic cigarettes and Electronic cigarette aerosol and e-liquid Adverse effects of vaping.[139]

The safety of electronic cigarettes is uncertain.[8][9][10] However, they are likely substantially safer than tobacco cigarettes.[6][117][140] There is considerable variation between vaporizers and in quality of their liquid ingredients and thus the contents of the vapor.[23][141][142] Reviews on the safety of electronic cigarettes, analyzing almost the same studies, resulted in substantially different conclusions.[143] In July 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) report cautioned about potential risks of using e-cigarettes.[19] Regulated US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) products such as nicotine inhalers are probably safer than e-cigarettes.[132] In 2015, Public Health England stated that e-cigarettes are estimated to be 95% less harmful than smoking.[109] A 2014 systematic review concluded that the risks of e-cigarettes have been exaggerated by health authorities and stated that while there may be some remaining risk, the risk of e-cigarette use is likely small compared to smoking tobacco.[27]

The long-term effects of e-cigarette use are unknown.[75][13][127] Improvements in lung function and pulmonary health have been demonstrated among smokers who have switched to e-cigarettes.[144][145] A 2014 Cochrane review found no serious adverse effects reported in clinical trials.[6] Less serious adverse effects from e-cigarette use include throat and mouth irritation, vomiting, nausea, and cough.[23] The evidence suggests they produce less harmful effects than tobacco.[146] A 2014 WHO report said, "ENDS use poses serious threats to adolescents and fetuses."[19] Aside from toxicity, there are also risks from misuse or accidents[27] such as contact with liquid nicotine,[147] fires caused by vaporizer malfunction,[23] and explosions as result from extended charging, unsuitable chargers, or design flaws.[27] Battery explosions are caused by an increase in internal battery temperature and some have resulted in severe skin burns.[8] There is a small risk of battery explosion in devices modified to increase battery power.[90]

The e-liquid has a low level of toxicity, but contamination with various chemicals has been found.[148] The majority of toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are absent in e-cigarette vapor.[26][27] Those which are present are mostly below 1% of the corresponding levels in tobacco smoke, and far below safety limits for occupational exposure.[28][149] Metal parts of e-cigarettes in contact with the e-liquid can contaminate it with metals.[27] Normal usage of e-cigarettes generates very low levels of formaldehyde.[150] A 2015 review found that later-generation e-cigarettes set at higher power may generate equal or higher levels of formaldehyde compared to smoking.[75][151] A 2015 review found that these levels were the result of overheating under test conditions that bear little resemblance to common usage.[150] The 2015 Public Health England report looking at the research concluded that by applying maximum power and increasing the time the device is used on a puffing machine, e-liquids can thermally degrade and produce high levels of formaldehyde.[12] Users detect the "dry puff" and avoid it, and the report concluded that "There is no indication that EC users are exposed to dangerous levels of aldehydes."[12] E-cigarette users who use e-cigarettes that contain nicotine are exposed to its potentially harmful effects.[24] Nicotine is associated with cardiovascular disease, potential birth defects, and poisoning.[152]In vitro studies of nicotine have associated it with cancer, but carcinogenicity has not been demonstrated in vivo.[152] There is inadequate research to demonstrate that nicotine is associated with cancer in humans.[153] The risk is probably low from the inhalation of propylene glycol and glycerin.[25] No information is available on the long-term effects of the inhalation of flavors.[148] Most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs are consistent with those of nicotine. According to a 2017 review, it is possible that ECs may have adverse cardiovascular effects on users, especially those who already have cardiovascular disease. However, this review also concluded that "the risk is thought to be less than that of cigarette smoking based on qualitative and quantitative comparisons of EC aerosol versus cigarette smoke constituents."[154]

E-cigarettes create vapor that consists of ultrafine particles, with the majority of particles in the ultrafine range.[23] The vapor has been found to contain flavors, propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, tiny amounts of toxicants, carcinogens, heavy metals, and metal nanoparticles, and other chemicals.[23][25] Exactly what comprises the vapor varies in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers.[24] However, e-cigarettes cannot be regarded as simply harmless.[155] There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor exhaled by e-cigarette users can be inhaled by bystanders, particularly indoors.[32] E-cigarette use by a parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring.[77] A 2014 review recommended that e-cigarettes should be regulated for consumer safety.[134] There is limited information available on the environmental issues around production, use, and disposal of e-cigarettes that use cartridges.[156] A 2014 review found "disposable e-cigarettes might cause an electrical waste problem."[135]

The World Health Organization has concluded regarding second hand aerosol (SHA) "that while there are a limited number of studies in this area, it can be concluded that SHA is a new air contamination source for particulate matter, which includes fine and ultrafine particles, as well as 1,2-propanediol, some VOCs [volatile organic compounds], some heavy metals, and nicotine" and "[i]t is nevertheless reasonable to assume that the increased concentration of toxicants from SHA over background levels poses an increased risk for the health of all bystanders".[107] Public Health England has concluded that "international peer-reviewed evidence indicates that the risk to the health of bystanders from secondhand e-cigarette vapour is extremely low and insufficient to justify prohibiting e-cigarettes".[157] A systematic review concluded, "the absolute impact from passive exposure to EC [electronic cigarette] vapour has the potential to lead to adverse health effects. The risk from being passively exposed to EC vapour is likely to be less than the risk from passive exposure to conventional cigarette smoke."[158]

Nicotine, a key ingredient in e-liquids, is a highly addictive substance, on a level comparable to heroin and cocaine.[159] Nicotine stimulates regions of the cortex associated with reward, pleasure and reducing anxiety.[90] When nicotine intake stops, withdrawal symptoms include cravings for nicotine, anger/irritability, anxiety, depression, impatience, trouble sleeping, restlessness, hunger or weight gain, and difficulty concentrating.[48][160] It is not clear whether e-cigarette use will decrease or increase overall nicotine addiction,[161] but the nicotine content in e-cigarettes is adequate to sustain nicotine dependence.[162]

The World Health Organization is concerned about addiction for non-smokers,[19] and the National Institute on Drug Abuse said e-cigarettes could maintain nicotine addiction in those who are attempting to quit.[163] The limited available data suggests that the likelihood of abuse from e-cigarettes is smaller than traditional cigarettes.[164] A 2014 systematic review found that the concerns that e-cigarettes could lead non-smokers to start smoking are unsubstantiated.[27] No long-term studies have been done on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in treating tobacco addiction,[132] but some evidence suggests that dual use of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes may be associated with greater nicotine dependence.[75]

Many studies have focused on young people, since youthful experimentation with e-cigarettes could lead to lifelong addiction.[59] Various organizations, including the UATLD, the AAP and the FDA, have expressed concern that e-cigarette use could increase nicotine addiction in youth.[138][163][165][166][167][168][169] Although regular use of e-cigarettes is generally very low by people who have never smoked,[25] significant numbers of teenagers who have never smoked tobacco have experimented with e-cigarettes.[23] The degree to which teens are using e-cigarettes in ways the manufacturers did not intend, such as increasing the nicotine delivery, is unknown,[147] as is the extent to which e-cigarette use could lead to addiction or substance dependence in youth.[147]

Smoking a traditional cigarette yields between 0.5 and 1.5 mg of nicotine,[162] but the nicotine content of the cigarette is only weakly correlated with the levels of nicotine in the smoker's bloodstream.[170] The amount of nicotine in the e-cigarette aerosol varies widely either from puff-to-puff or among products of the same company.[24] In practice e-cigarette users tend to reach lower blood nicotine concentrations than smokers, particularly when the users are inexperienced or using earlier-generation devices.[93] Nicotine in tobacco smoke is absorbed into the bloodstream rapidly, and e-cigarette vapor is relatively slow in this regard.[93] The concentration of nicotine in e-liquid ranges up to 36 mg/mL.[26] New EU regulations cap this at a maximum of 2% (20 mg/mL), but this is an arbitrary ceiling based on limited data.[8] In practice the nicotine concentration in an e-liquid is not a reliable guide to the amount of nicotine that reaches the bloodstream.[26]

The earliest e-cigarette can be traced to American Herbert A. Gilbert,[171] who in 1963 patented "a smokeless non-tobacco cigarette" that involved "replacing burning tobacco and paper with heated, moist, flavored air".[172][173] This device produced flavored steam without nicotine.[173] The patent was granted in 1965.[174] Gilbert's invention was ahead of its time.[175] There were prototypes, but it received little attention[176] and was never commercialized[173] because smoking was still fashionable at that time.[177] Gilbert said in 2013 that today's electric cigarettes follow the basic design set forth in his original patent.[174]

Hon Lik, a Chinese pharmacist and inventor who worked as a research pharmacist for a company producing ginseng products, is credited with the invention of the modern e-cigarette.[30] Lik quit smoking after his father, also a heavy smoker, died of lung cancer.[30] In 2001, he thought of using a high frequency, piezoelectric ultrasound-emitting element to vaporize a pressurized jet of liquid containing nicotine.[178] This design creates a smoke-like vapor.[30] Lik said that using resistance heating obtained better results and the difficulty was to scale down the device to a small enough size.[178] Lik's invention was intended to be an alternative to smoking.[178]

The Ruyan e-cigar was first launched in China in 2004.

Hon Lik registered a patent for the modern e-cigarette design in 2003.[178] The e-cigarette was first introduced to the Chinese domestic market in 2004.[30] Many versions made their way to the U.S., sold mostly over the Internet by small marketing firms.[30] E-cigarettes entered the European market and the US market in 2006 and 2007.[50] The company that Lik worked for, Golden Dragon Holdings, registered an international patent in November 2007.[179] The company changed its name to Ruyan (如烟, literally "Resembling smoking") later the same month[180] and started exporting its products.[30] Many US and Chinese e-cig makers copied his designs illegally, so Lik has not received much financial reward for his invention (although some US manufacturers have compensated him through out of court settlements).[181] Ruyan later changed its company name to Dragonite International Limited.[180] Most e-cigarettes today use a battery-powered heating element rather than the earlier ultrasonic technology design.[117]

When e-cigarettes entered the international market, some users were dissatisfied with their performance,[182][183] and the e-cigarette continued to evolve from the first generation three-part device.[94] In 2007 British entrepreneurs Umer and Tariq Sheikh invented the cartomizer.[184] This is a mechanism that integrates the heating coil into the liquid chamber.[184] They launched this new device in the UK in 2008 under their Gamucci brand,[183] and the design is now widely adopted by most "cigalike" brands.[94] Other users tinkered with various parts to produce more satisfactory homemade devices, and the hobby of "modding" was born.[182] The first mod to replace the e-cigarette's case to accommodate a longer-lasting battery, dubbed the "screwdriver", was developed by Ted and Matt Rogers[182] in 2008.[97] Other enthusiasts built their own mods to improve functionality or aesthetics.[182] When pictures of mods appeared at online vaping forums many people wanted them, so some mod makers produced more for sale.[182]

The demand for customizable e-cigarettes prompted some manufacturers to produce devices with interchangeable components that could be selected by the user.[97] In 2009, Joyetech developed the eGo series[184] which offered the power of the screwdriver model and a user-activated switch to a wide market.[97] The clearomizer was invented in 2009.[184] Originating from the cartomizer design, it contained the wicking material, an e-liquid chamber, and an atomizer coil within a single clear component.[184] The clearomizer allows the user to monitor the liquid level in the device.[184] Soon after the clearomizer reached the market, replaceable atomizer coils and variable voltage batteries were introduced.[184] Clearomizers and eGo batteries became the best-selling customizable e-cigarette components in early 2012.[97]

International tobacco companies dismissed e-cigarettes as a fad at first.[185] However, recognizing the development of a potential new market sector that could render traditional tobacco products obsolete,[186] they began to produce and market their own brands of e-cigarettes and acquire existing e-cigarette companies.[187]blu eCigs, a prominent US e-cigarette manufacturer, was acquired by Lorillard Inc. in 2012.[188]British American Tobacco was the first tobacco business to sell e-cigarettes in the UK.[189] They launched Vype in 2013, while Imperial Tobacco's Fontem Ventures acquired the intellectual property owned by Hon Lik through Dragonite International Limited for $US 75 million in 2013 and launched Puritane in partnership with Boots UK.[190] On 1 October 2013 Lorillard Inc. acquired another e-cigarette company, this time the UK based company SKYCIG.[191] SKY was rebranded as blu.[192] On 3 February 2014, Altria Group, Inc. acquired popular electronic cigarette brand Green Smoke for $110 million.[193] The deal was finalized in April 2014 for $110 million with $20 million in incentive payments.[193] Altria also markets its own e-cigarette, the MarkTen, while Reynolds American has entered the sector with its Vuse product.[187] Philip Morris, the world's largest tobacco firm, purchased UK's Nicocigs in June 2014.[194] On 30 April 2015, Japan Tobacco bought the US Logic e-cigarette brand.[195] Japan Tobacco also bought the UK E-Lites brand in June 2014.[195] On 15 July 2014, Lorillard sold blu to Imperial Tobacco as part of a deal for $7.1 billion.[196]

In 2014, dollar sales of customizable e-cigarettes and e-liquid surpassed sales of cigalikes in the US, despite the fact that customizables are less expensive.[197]

Consumers of e-cigarettes, sometimes called "vapers", have shown passionate support for e-cigarettes that other nicotine replacement therapies did not receive.[26][198] This suggests e-cigarettes have potential mass appeal that could challenge combustible tobacco's market position.[26]

A subculture of "vapers" has emerged.[198][199] Members of this emerging subculture often see e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to smoking,[25] and some view it as a hobby.[200] The online forum Electronic Cigarette Forum was one of the first major communities.[182] It and other online forums, such as UKVaper.org, were the origins of the hobby of modding.[182] There are also groups on Facebook and Reddit.[201] Online forums based around modding have grown in the vaping community.[202] Vapers energetically embrace activities associated with e-cigarettes and sometimes act as unpaid evangelists according to a 2014 review.[83] A 2014 Postgraduate Medical Journal editorial stated that e-cigarette companies have a substantial online presence, as well as many individual vapers who blog and tweet about e-cigarette related products.[203] The editorial stated that vapers "also engage in grossly offensive online attacks on anyone who has the temerity to suggest that ENDS are anything other than an innovation that can save thousands of lives with no risks".[203] A 2014 review stated that tobacco and e-cigarette companies interact with consumers for their policy agenda.[23] The companies use websites, social media, and marketing to get consumers involved in opposing bills that include e-cigarettes in smoke-free laws.[23] The same review said this is similar to tobacco industry activity going back to the 1980s.[23] These approaches were used in Europe to minimize the EU Tobacco Product Directive in October 2013.[23] True grassroots lobbying also influenced the TPD decision.[204]Rebecca Taylor, a member of the European Parliament, stated, "to say it's an orchestrated campaign is absolute rubbish."[204] Contempt for "big tobacco" is part of vaping culture.[205][206]

E-cigarette user blowing a cloud of aerosol (vapor). The activity is known as cloud-chasing.[207]

Large gatherings of vapers, called vape meets, take place around the US.[198] They focus on e-cig devices, accessories, and the lifestyle that accompanies them.[198] Vapefest, which started in 2010, is an annual show hosted by different cities.[201] People attending these meetings are usually enthusiasts that use specialized, community-made products not found in convenience stores or gas stations.[198] These products are mostly available online or in dedicated "vape" storefronts where mainstream e-cigarettes brands from the tobacco industry and larger e-cig manufacturers are not as popular.[208] Some vape shops have a vape bar where patrons can test out different e-liquids and socialize.[209] The Electronic Cigarette Convention in North America which started in 2013, is an annual show where companies and consumers meet up.[210]

A subclass of vapers configure their atomizers to produce large amounts of vapor by using low-resistance heating coils.[211] This practice is called "cloud-chasing"[212][213] By using a coil with very low resistance, the batteries are stressed to a potentially unsafe extent.[212] This could present a risk of dangerous battery failures.[212] As vaping comes under increased scrutiny, some members of the vaping community have voiced their concerns about cloud-chasing, claiming the practice gives vapers a bad reputation when doing it in public.[214] The Oxford Dictionaries' word of the year for 2014 was "vape".[215]

Main articles: Regulation of electronic cigarettes and List of vaping bans in the United States A no smoking or vaping sign from the US.

Regulation of e-cigarettes varies across countries and states, ranging from no regulation to banning them entirely.[216] Others have introduced strict restrictions and some have licensed devices as medicines such as in the UK.[217] As of 2015[update], around two thirds of major nations have regulated e-cigarettes in some way.[218] Because of the potential relationship with tobacco laws and medical drug policies, e-cigarette legislation is being debated in many countries.[35] The companies that make e-cigarettes have been pushing for laws that support their interests.[219] In 2016 the US Department of Transportation banned the use of e-cigarettes on commercial flights.[220] This regulation applies to all flights to and from the US.[220]

The legal status of e-cigarettes is currently pending in many countries.[23] Many countries such as Brazil, Singapore, the Seychelles, Uruguay, and Norway have banned e-cigarettes.[217] In Canada, they are technically illegal to sell, as no nicotine-containing e-fluid is approved by Health Canada, but this is generally unenforced and they are commonly available for sale Canada-wide.[221] In the US and the UK, the use and sale to adults of e-cigarettes are legal.[222]:US[223]:UK As of August 8, 2016, the FDA extended its regulatory power to include e-cigarettes.[37] Under this ruling the FDA will evaluate certain issues, including ingredients, product features and health risks, as well their appeal to minors and non-users.[224] The FDA rule also bans access to minors.[224] A photo ID is required to buy e-cigarettes,[225] and their sale in all-ages vending machines is not permitted.[224] In May 2016 the FDA used its authority under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act to deem e-cigarette devices and e-liquids to be tobacco products, which meant it intended to regulate the marketing, labelling, and manufacture of devices and liquids; vape shops that mix e-liquids or make or modify devices were considered manufacturing sites that needed to register with FDA and comply with good manufacturing practice regulation.[16] E-cigarette and tobacco companies have recruited lobbyists in an effort to prevent the FDA from evaluating e-cigarette products or banning existing products already on the market.[226]

In February 2014 the European Parliament passed regulations requiring standardization and quality control for liquids and vaporizers, disclosure of ingredients in liquids, and child-proofing and tamper-proofing for liquid packaging.[36][227] In April 2014 the FDA published proposed regulations for e-cigarettes along similar lines.[228][229] In the US some states tax e-cigarettes as tobacco products, and some state and regional governments have broadened their indoor smoking bans to include e-cigarettes.[76] As of 9 October 2015, at least 48 states and 2 territories banned e-cigarette sales to minors.[230]

E-cigarettes have been listed as drug delivery devices in several countries because they contain nicotine, and their advertising has been restricted until safety and efficacy clinical trials are conclusive.[231] Since they do not contain tobacco, television advertising in the US is not restricted.[232] Some countries have regulated e-cigarettes as a medical product even though they have not approved them as a smoking cessation aid.[233] A 2014 review stated the emerging phenomenon of e-cigarettes has raised concerns in the health community, governments, and the general public and recommended that e-cigarettes should be regulated to protect consumers.[134] It added, "heavy regulation by restricting access to e-cigarettes would just encourage continuing use of much unhealthier tobacco smoking."[134] A 2014 review said these products should be considered for regulation in view of the "reported adverse health effects".[233]

A 2014 review said, "the e-cigarette companies have been rapidly expanding using aggressive marketing messages similar to those used to promote cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s."[23] E-cigarettes and nicotine are regularly promoted as safe and beneficial in the media and on brand websites.[77] While advertising of tobacco products is banned in most countries, television and radio e-cigarette advertising in some countries may be indirectly encouraging traditional cigarette smoking.[23] There is no evidence that the cigarette brands are selling e-cigarettes as part of a plan to phase out traditional cigarettes, despite some claiming to want to cooperate in "harm reduction".[23] In the US, six large e-cigarette businesses spent $59.3 million on promoting e-cigarettes in 2013.[234] Easily circumvented age verification at company websites enables young people to access and be exposed to marketing for e-cigarettes.[73]

A national US television advertising campaign starred Steven Dorff exhaling a "thick flume" of what the ad describes as "vapor, not tobacco smoke", exhorting smokers with the message "We are all adults here, it's time to take our freedom back."[235] The ads, in a context of longstanding prohibition of tobacco advertising on TV, were criticized by organizations such as Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids as undermining anti-tobacco efforts.[235] Cynthia Hallett of Americans for Non-Smokers' Rights described the US advertising campaign as attempting to "re-establish a norm that smoking is okay, that smoking is glamorous and acceptable".[235] University of Pennsylvania communications professor Joseph Cappella stated that the setting of the ad near an ocean was meant to suggest an association of clean air with the nicotine product.[235] In 2012 and 2013, e-cigarette companies advertised to a large television audience in the US which included 24 million youth.[236] The channels on which e-cigarette advertising reached the largest numbers of youth (ages 12–17) were AMC, Country Music Television, Comedy Central, WGN America, TV Land, and VH1.[236]

A 2014 review said e-cigarettes are aggressively promoted, mostly via the internet, as a healthy alternative to smoking in the US.[32]Celebrity endorsements are used to encourage e-cigarette use.[78] "Big tobacco" markets e-cigarettes to young people,[237] with industry strategies including cartoon characters and candy flavors to sell e-cigarettes.[238] E-cigarette companies commonly promote that their products contain only water, nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, and flavoring but this assertion is misleading as scientists have found differing amounts of heavy metals in the vapor, including chromium, nickel, tin, silver, cadmium, mercury, and aluminum.[57] The assertion that e-cigarette emit "only water vapor" is false because the evidence indicates e-cigarette vapor contains possibly harmful chemicals such as nicotine, carbonyls, metals, and organic volatile compounds, in addition to particulates.[239]

Vaping stand, London shopping centre.

The number of e-cigarettes sold increased every year[117] from 2003 to 2015, when a slowdown in the growth in usage occurred in both the US and the UK.[45][46] As of 2014[update] there were at least 466 e-cigarette brands.[49] Worldwide e-cigarette sales in 2014 were around US$7 billion.[240] Approximately 30–50% of total e-cigarettes sales are handled on the internet.[32]

As of 2015[update] most e-cigarette devices were made in China,[31] mainly in Shenzhen.[241][242] Chinese companies' market share of e-liquid is low.[243]

In the US, tobacco producers have a significant share of the e-cigarette market.[59][244] As of 2015[update], 80% of all e-cigarette sales in convenience stores in the U.S. were products made by tobacco companies.[245] According to Nielsen Holdings, convenience store e-cigarette sales in the US went down for the first time during the four-week period ending on 10 May 2014.[246] Wells Fargo analyst Bonnie Herzog attributes this decline to a shift in consumers' behavior, buying more specialized devices or what she calls "vapor/tank/mods (VTMs)" that are not tracked by Nielsen.[246] Wells Fargo estimated that VTMs accounted for 57% of the 3.5 billion dollar market in the US for vapor products in 2015.[247] In 2014, the Smoke-Free Alternatives Trade Association estimated that there were 35,000 vape shops in the US, more than triple the number a year earlier.[248] However the 2015 slowdown in market growth affected VTMs as well.[45]

In Canada, e-cigarettes had an estimated value of 140 million CAD in 2015.[249] There are numerous e-cigarette retail shops in Canada.[250] A 2014 audit of retailers in four Canadian cities found that 94% of grocery stores, convenience stores, and tobacconist shops which sold e-cigarettes sold nicotine-free varieties only, while all vape shops stocked at least one nicotine-containing product.[251]

In the UK in 2015 the "most prominent brands of cigalikes" were owned by tobacco companies, but except for one model all the tank types came from "non-tobacco industry companies".[105] However some tobacco industry products, while using prefilled cartridges, resemble tank models.[105]

France's electronic cigarette market was estimated by Groupe Xerfi to be €130 million in 2015. Additionally, France's e-liquid market was estimated at €265 million.[252] In December 2015, there were 2,400 vape shops in France, 400 fewer than in March of the same year.[252] Industry organization Fivape said the reduction was due to consolidation, not to reduced demand.[252]

Other devices to deliver inhaled nicotine have been developed.[253] They aim to mimic the ritual and behavioral aspects of traditional cigarettes.[253]

British American Tobacco, through their subsidiary Nicoventures, licensed a nicotine delivery system based on existing asthma inhaler technology from UK-based healthcare company Kind Consumer.[254] In September 2014 a product based on this named Voke obtained approval from the United Kingdom's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency.[255]

Philip Morris International (PMI) bought the rights to a nicotine pyruvate technology developed by Jed Rose at Duke University.[256] The technology is based on the chemical reaction between pyruvic acid and nicotine, which produces an inhalable nicotine pyruvate vapor.[257]

PAX Labs has developed vaporizers that heats the leaves of tobacco to deliver nicotine in a vapor.[258][259] On 1 June 2015, they introduced Juul a different type of e-cigarette which delivers 10 times as much nicotine as other e-cigarettes, equivalent to an actual cigarette puff.[260]

BLOW started selling e-hookahs, an electronic version of the hookah, in 2014.[261] Several companies including Canada's Eagle Energy Vapor are selling caffeine-based e-cigarettes instead of nicotine.[262]

  1. ^ a b Sullum, Jacob (27 Aug 2015), "Wacky British Idea: Why Not Tell The Truth About E-Cigarettes?", Forbes 
  2. ^ a b c d WHO (2014), Electronic nicotine delivery systems: FCTC/COP/6/10 Rev.1 (PDF), Moscow: World Health Organization, Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Sixth session, 13–18 October 2014 
  3. ^ a b "Cambridge study raises fears over e-cigarette adverts for children", Cambridge News, 18 Jan 2016 
  4. ^ Lam on behalf of the Asian-Pacific Society of Respirology; et al. (2014), "Electronic cigarettes: ‘Vaping’ has unproven benefits and potential harm", Respirology, 19: 945–947, PMID 25196968, doi:10.1111/resp.12374 
  5. ^ a b Millar et al. (20 Mar 2016), "Consumer Product Safety Commission Gains New Authority Over Some Nicotine-Containing E-Liquid Packages", The National Law Review CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden (2014). "Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction". The Cochrane Library. 12: CD010216. PMID 25515689. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010216.pub2. 
  7. ^ V.Courtney Broaddus, Robert C Mason, Joel D Ernst, Talmadge E King Jr., Stephen C. Lazarus, John F. Murray, Jay A. Nadel, Arthur Slutsky, Michael Gotway (2015). Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 820. ISBN 0323261930. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Ebbert, Jon O.; Agunwamba, Amenah A.; Rutten, Lila J. (2015). "Counseling Patients on the Use of Electronic Cigarettes". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 90 (1): 128–134. ISSN 0025-6196. PMID 25572196. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.11.004. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Siu, A.L. (22 September 2015). "Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy Interventions for Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults, Including Pregnant Women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.". Annals of Internal Medicine. 163: 622–34. PMID 26389730. doi:10.7326/M15-2023. 
  10. ^ a b Harrell, P.T.; Simmons, V.N.; Correa, J.B.; Padhya, T.A.; Brandon, T.H. (4 June 2014). "Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems ("E-cigarettes"): Review of Safety and Smoking Cessation Efficacy.". Otolaryngology—head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 151: 381–393. PMC 4376316 . PMID 24898072. doi:10.1177/0194599814536847. 
  11. ^ Golub, Justin S.; Samy, Ravi N. (2015). "Preventing or reducing smoking-related complications in otologic and neurotologic surgery". Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery. 23 (5): 334–340. ISSN 1068-9508. PMID 26339963. doi:10.1097/MOO.0000000000000184. 
  12. ^ a b c d McNeill, A. (August 2015). "E-cigarettes: an evidence update A report commissioned by Public Health England" (PDF). gov.uk. UK: Public Health England. pp. 77–78. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f Rahman MA, Hann N, Wilson A, Worrall-Carter L (2014). "Electronic cigarettes: patterns of use, health effects, use in smoking cessation and regulatory issues". Tob Induc Dis. 12 (1): 21. PMC 4350653 . PMID 25745382. doi:10.1186/1617-9625-12-21. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  14. ^ "DrugFacts: Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products". National Institute on Drug Abuse. May 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  15. ^ a b c d Royal College of Physicians. "Nicotine without smoke: Tobacco harm reduction". rcplondon.ac.uk. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  16. ^ a b c "Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products". Federal Register. US Food and Drug Administration. 81 (90): 28974–29106. 10 May 2016. 
  17. ^ Nutt, DJ; Phillips, LD; Balfour, D; Curran, HV; Dockrell, M; Foulds, J; Fagerstrom, K; Letlape, K; Milton, A; Polosa, R; Ramsey, J; Sweanor, D (2014). "Estimating the harms of nicotine-containing products using the MCDA approach.". European Addiction Research. 20 (5): 218–25. PMID 24714502. doi:10.1159/000360220. 
  18. ^ a b c Caponnetto P.; Russo C.; Bruno C.M.; Alamo A.; Amaradio M.D.; Polosa R. (Mar 2013). "Electronic cigarette: a possible substitute for cigarette dependence". Monaldi archives for chest disease. 79 (1): 12–19. PMID 23741941. doi:10.4081/monaldi.2013.104. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k WHO. "Electronic nicotine delivery systems" (PDF). pp. 1–13. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  20. ^ a b "E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults A Report of the Surgeon General: Fact Sheet" (PDF). United States Department of Health and Human Services. Surgeon General of the United States. 2016.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  21. ^ Soneji, S; Barrington-Trimis, J; Wills, T (26 June 2017). "Association Between Initial Use of e-Cigarettes and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents and Young Adults, A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA Pediatrics. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1488. 
  22. ^ McNeill, A, PH. "Underpinning evidence for the estimate that e-cigarette use is around 95% safer than smoking: authors’ note". gov.uk. Public Health England. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Grana, R; Benowitz, N; Glantz, SA (13 May 2014). "E-cigarettes: a scientific review.". Circulation. 129 (19): 1972–86. PMC 4018182 . PMID 24821826. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.114.007667. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f Cheng, T. (2014). "Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes". Tobacco Control. 23 (Supplement 2): ii11–ii17. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 3995255 . PMID 24732157. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051482. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hajek, P.; Etter, J.F.; Benowitz, N.; Eissenberg, T.; McRobbie, H. (31 July 2014). "Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit". Addiction (Abingdon, England). 109 (11): 1801–10. PMC 4487785 . PMID 25078252. doi:10.1111/add.12659. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze (15 May 2014). "Electronic cigarettes – A report commissioned by Public Health England" (PDF). Public Health England. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Farsalinos, K.E.; Polosa, R. (2014). "Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review". Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety. 5 (2): 67–86. ISSN 2042-0986. PMC 4110871 . PMID 25083263. doi:10.1177/2042098614524430. 
  28. ^ a b c Burstyn, Igor (2014). "Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks". BMC Public Health. 14 (1): 18. ISSN 1471-2458. PMC 3937158 . PMID 24406205. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-18. 
  29. ^ a b c "E-cigarettes: an emerging public health consensus". UK: Public Health England. 2015. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Barbara Demick (25 April 2009). "A high-tech approach to getting a nicotine fix". Los Angeles Times. 
  31. ^ a b c Alawsi, F.; Nour, R.; Prabhu, S. (2015). "Are e-cigarettes a gateway to smoking or a pathway to quitting?". BDJ. 219 (3): 111–115. ISSN 0007-0610. PMID 26271862. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2015.591. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z. (2014). "Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1340 (1): 65–74. ISSN 0077-8923. PMID 25557889. doi:10.1111/nyas.12609. 
  33. ^ a b "E-cigarette use triples among middle and high school students in just one year". CDC. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  34. ^ a b c "Use of electronic cigarettes (vapourisers) among adults in Great Britain" (PDF). ASH UK. May 2015. 
  35. ^ a b Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara (2016). "Review of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: their potential human health impact". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C: 00–00. ISSN 1059-0501. PMID 27635466. doi:10.1080/10590501.2016.1236604. 
  36. ^ a b "Questions & Answers: New rules for tobacco products". European Commission. 26 February 2014. 
  37. ^ a b "FDA's New Regulations for E-Cigarettes, Cigars, and All Other Tobacco Products". US Department of Health and Human Services. US Food and Drug Administration. 12 August 2016. 
  38. ^ a b "Backgrounder on WHO report on regulation of e-cigarettes and similar products". 26 August 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2015. 
  39. ^ editor (13 Aug 2015), "Tasty E-Cigs Popular, Scientifically Uncertain", WGCU News NPR 
  40. ^ Kahn, Steven (18 Dec 2015), "The Best Electronic Cigarettes For Beginners", The Gazette Review 
  41. ^ Keenan et al. (9 Sep 2015), "Vape Culture Attracts Teens, Poses Harmful Risks", The Huffington Post CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  42. ^ "Public consultation on legislation in relation to the sale of tobacco products and non-medicinal nicotine delivery systems, including e-cigarettes". Department of Health (Ireland). 2 December 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2016. 
  43. ^ Michael Felberbaum (11 June 2013). "Marlboro Maker To Launch New Electronic Cigarette". The Huffington Post. 
  44. ^ a b Schraufnagel, Dean E.; Blasi, Francesco; Drummond, M. Bradley; Lam, David C. L.; Latif, Ehsan; Rosen, Mark J.; Sansores, Raul; Van Zyl-Smit, Richard (2014). "Electronic Cigarettes. A Position Statement of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 190 (6): 611–618. ISSN 1073-449X. PMID 25006874. doi:10.1164/rccm.201407-1198PP. 
  45. ^ a b c Mickle, Tripp (17 November 2015). "E-cig sales rapidly lose steam". E-Cigarette Sales Rapidly Lose Steam. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  46. ^ a b West, Robert; Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie (10 August 2015). "Electronic cigarettes in England – latest trends (STS140122)". Smoking in England. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  47. ^ a b c d e Carroll Chapman, SL; Wu, LT (18 Mar 2014). "E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: A review and comparison.". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 54: 43–54. PMC 4055566 . PMID 24680203. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.03.005. 
  48. ^ a b c Bullen, Christopher (2014). "Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation". Current Cardiology Reports. 16 (11): 538. ISSN 1523-3782. PMID 25303892. doi:10.1007/s11886-014-0538-8. 
  49. ^ a b Born, H.; Persky, M.; Kraus, D.H.; Peng, R.; Amin, M.R.; Branski, R.C. (2015). "Electronic Cigarettes: A Primer for Clinicians". Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery. 153: 5–14. ISSN 0194-5998. PMID 26002957. doi:10.1177/0194599815585752. 
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pepper, J. K.; Brewer, N. T. (2013). "Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review". Tobacco Control. 23 (5): 375–384. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 4520227 . PMID 24259045. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051122. 
  51. ^ Suter, Melissa A.; Mastrobattista, Joan; Sachs, Maike; Aagaard, Kjersti (2015). "Is There Evidence for Potential Harm of Electronic Cigarette Use in Pregnancy?". Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology. 103 (3): 186–195. ISSN 1542-0752. PMC 4830434 . PMID 25366492. doi:10.1002/bdra.23333. 
  52. ^ Franck, C.; Budlovsky, T.; Windle, S.B.; Filion, K. B.; Eisenberg, M.J. (2014). "Electronic Cigarettes in North America: History, Use, and Implications for Smoking Cessation". Circulation. 129 (19): 1945–1952. ISSN 0009-7322. PMID 24821825. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006416. 
  53. ^ Charlotte A. Schoenborn, Renee M. Gindi (October 2015). "Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adults: United States, 2014" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. pp. 1–8. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  54. ^ a b c d Delnevo, Cristine D.; Giovenco, Daniel P.; Steinberg, Michael B.; Villanti, Andrea C.; Pearson, Jennifer L.; Niaura, Raymond S.; Abrams, David B. (2 November 2015). "Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adults in the United States". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 18: ntv237. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntv237. 
  55. ^ Volkow, Nora (August 2015). "Teens Using E-cigarettes More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco". National Institute on Drug Abuse. 
  56. ^ a b Lauterstein, Dana; Hoshino, Risa; Gordon, Terry; Watkins, Beverly-Xaviera; Weitzman, Michael; Zelikoff, Judith (2014). "The Changing Face of Tobacco Use Among United States Youth". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 7 (1): 29–43. ISSN 1874-4737. PMC 4469045 . PMID 25323124. doi:10.2174/1874473707666141015220110. 
  57. ^ a b Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Pesko, Michael F.; Shearer, Lee; Hughes, Jenna M.; Chang, Jane; Loughlin, Gerald M.; Ipp, Lisa S. (2015). "A Practitioner's Guide to Electronic Cigarettes in the Adolescent Population". Journal of Adolescent Health. 57: 574–9. ISSN 1054-139X. PMID 26422289. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.07.020. 
  58. ^ Sabrina Tavernise (17 April 2015). "Use of e-cigarettes rising sharply among teenagers". Boston Globe. 
  59. ^ a b c d Schraufnagel, Dean E. (2015). "Electronic Cigarettes: Vulnerability of Youth". Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology. 28 (1): 2–6. ISSN 2151-321X. PMC 4359356 . PMID 25830075. doi:10.1089/ped.2015.0490. 
  60. ^ "Monitoring the Future Survey, Overview of Findings 2015". National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved 10 March 2016. 
  61. ^ Arrazola, RA; Neff, LJ; Kennedy, SM; Holder-Hayes, E; Jones, CD (14 November 2014). "Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students — United States, 2013". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 63 (45): 1021–1026. PMID 24699766. 
  62. ^ a b Cooke, Andrew; Fergeson, Jennifer; Bulkhi, Adeeb; Casale, Thomas B. (2015). "The Electronic Cigarette: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. 3 (4): 498–505. ISSN 2213-2198. PMID 26164573. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.05.022. 
  63. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (November 2013). "Tobacco product use among middle and high school students—United States, 2011 and 2012". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 62 (45): 893–7. PMID 24226625. 
  64. ^ a b McNeill, A, SC (2015). "E – cigarettes: an evidence update A report commissioned by Public Health England" (PDF). gov.uk. UK: Public Health England. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  65. ^ a b c "Use of electronic cigarettes in Great Britain" (PDF). ASH. ASH. July 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  66. ^ "Over 2 million Britons now regularly use electronic cigarettes". ASH UK. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  67. ^ McNeill, A, SC (2015). "E – cigarettes: an evidence update A report commissioned by Public Health England" (PDF). gov.uk. UK: Public Health England. pp. 31–34. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  68. ^ Moore, G. F.; Littlecott, H. J.; Moore, L.; Ahmed, N.; Holliday, J. (2014). "E-cigarette use and intentions to smoke among 10-11-year-old never-smokers in Wales". Tobacco Control. 25: 147–52. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 4789807 . PMID 25535293. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052011. 
  69. ^ a b c "Prévalence, comportements d'achat et d'usage, motivations des utilisateurs de la cigarette électronique" (PDF). Observatoire Français des Drogues et des Toxicomanies. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  70. ^ a b c Brandon, T.H.; Goniewicz, M.L.; Hanna, N.H.; Hatsukami, D.K.; Herbst, R.S.; Hobin, J.A.; Ostroff, J.S.; Shields, P.G.; Toll, B.A.; Tyne, C.A.; Viswanath, K.; Warren, G.W. (2015). "Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Policy Statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology" (PDF). Clinical Cancer Research. 21: 514–525. ISSN 1078-0432. PMID 25573384. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2544. 
  71. ^ Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng (3 May 2016). "Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13 (5): 465. doi:10.3390/ijerph13050465. 
  72. ^ a b "Regulation of Electronic Cigarettes ("E-Cigarettes")" (PDF). National Association of County and City Health Officials. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  73. ^ a b c Grana R.A., Ling P.M. (2014). ""Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites". Am J Prev Med. 46 (4): 395–403. PMC 3989286 . PMID 24650842. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.12.010. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  74. ^ a b Tomashefski, A (21 March 2016). "The perceived effects of electronic cigarettes on health by adult users: A state of the science systematic literature review.". Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners. PMID 26997487. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12358. 
  75. ^ a b c d e Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A.; Payne, Drew; Mulkey, Zachary; Nugent, Kenneth (2015). "Electronic cigarettes-a narrative review for clinicians". The American Journal of Medicine. 128: 674–81. ISSN 0002-9343. PMID 25731134. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.01.033. 
  76. ^ a b Crowley, Ryan A. (2015). "Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: Executive Summary of a Policy Position Paper From the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (8): 583–4. ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 25894027. doi:10.7326/M14-2481. 
  77. ^ a b c England, Lucinda J.; Bunnell, Rebecca E.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Tong, Van T.; McAfee, Tim A. (2015). "Nicotine and the Developing Human". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 49: 286–93. ISSN 0749-3797. PMC 4594223 . PMID 25794473. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.01.015. 
  78. ^ a b Linda Bauld; Kathryn Angus; Marisa de Andrade (May 2014). "E-cigarette uptake and marketing" (PDF). Public Health England. pp. 1–19. 
  79. ^ Kong, G.; Morean, M.E.; Cavallo, D.A.; Camenga, D.R.; Krishnan-Sarin, S. (2014). "Reasons for Electronic Cigarette Experimentation and Discontinuation Among Adolescents and Young Adults". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 17: 847–54. ISSN 1462-2203. PMC 4674436 . PMID 25481917. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntu257. 
  80. ^ "Heart and Stroke Foundation: E-cigarettes in Canada". Heart and Stroke Foundation. 
  81. ^ Kevin Chatham-Stephens (20 October 2014). "Young Children and e-Cigarette Poisoning". Medscape. 
  82. ^ a b Yingst, J. M.; Veldheer, S.; Hrabovsky, S.; Nichols, T. T.; Wilson, S. J.; Foulds, J. (2015). "Factors associated with electronic cigarette users' device preferences and transition from first generation to advanced generation devices.". Nicotine Tob Res. 17: 1242–6. ISSN 1462-2203. PMC 4592341 . PMID 25744966. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntv052. 
  83. ^ a b Sanford Z, Goebel L (2014). "E-cigarettes: an up to date review and discussion of the controversy". W V Med J. 110 (4): 10–5. PMID 25322582. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i Giroud, Christian; de Cesare, Mariangela; Berthet, Aurélie; Varlet, Vincent; Concha-Lozano, Nicolas; Favrat, Bernard (2015-08-01). "E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 12 (8): 9988–10008. ISSN 1660-4601. PMC 4555324 . PMID 26308021. doi:10.3390/ijerph120809988. 
  85. ^ Abuse, National Institute on Drug. "Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)". drugabuse.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-27. 
  86. ^ Giroud, Christian; de Cesare, Mariangela; Berthet, Aurélie; Varlet, Vincent; Concha-Lozano, Nicolas; Favrat, Bernard (2015-08-01). "E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 12 (8): 9988–10008. ISSN 1661-7827. PMC 4555324 . PMID 26308021. doi:10.3390/ijerph120809988. 
  87. ^ "Electronic Cigarette Fires and Explosions" (PDF). U.S. Fire Administration. 2014. pp. 1–11. 
  88. ^ "What is an e-Cigarette MOD E-cig 101". 19 February 2014. 
  89. ^ "Vaper Talk – The Vaper's Glossary". Spinfuel eMagazine. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014. 
  90. ^ a b c Rowell, Temperance R.; Tarran, Robert (2015). "Will Chronic E-Cigarette Use Cause Lung Disease?". American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 309: ajplung.00272.2015. ISSN 1040-0605. PMC 4683316 . PMID 26408554. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00272.2015. 
  91. ^ a b c Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Papale, Gabriella; Russo, Cristina; Polosa, Riccardo (2012). "The emerging phenomenon of electronic cigarettes". Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. 6 (1): 63–74. ISSN 1747-6348. PMID 22283580. doi:10.1586/ers.11.92. 
  92. ^ Glasser, A. M.; Cobb, C. O.; Teplitskaya, L.; Ganz, O.; Katz, L.; Rose, S. W.; Feirman, S.; Villanti, A. C. (2015). "Electronic nicotine delivery devices, and their impact on health and patterns of tobacco use: a systematic review protocol". BMJ Open. 5 (4): e007688–e007688. ISSN 2044-6055. PMC 4420972 . PMID 25926149. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007688. 
  93. ^ a b c d Farsalinos KE, Spyrou A, Tsimopoulou K, Stefopoulos C, Romagna G, Voudris V (2014). "Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: Comparison between first and new-generation devices". Scientific Reports. 4: 4133. PMC 3935206 . PMID 24569565. doi:10.1038/srep04133. 
  94. ^ a b c Bhatnagar, A.; Whitsel, L. P.; Ribisl, K. M.; Bullen, C.; Chaloupka, F.; Piano, M.R.; Robertson, R. M.; McAuley, T.; Goff, D.; Benowitz, N. (24 August 2014). "AHA Policy Statement - Electronic Cigarettes". Circulation. 130 (16): 1418–1436. PMID 25156991. doi:10.1161/cir.0000000000000107.  Archive
  95. ^ Hayden McRobbie (2014). "Electronic cigarettes" (PDF). National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. pp. 1–16. 
  96. ^ Konstantinos Farsalinos. "Electronic cigarette evolution from the first to fourth generation and beyond" (PDF). gfn.net.co. Global Forum on Nicotine. p. 23. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  97. ^ a b c d e Garner, Charles; Stevens, Robert (February 2014). "A Brief Description of History, Operation and Regulation" (PDF). Coresta. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  98. ^ a b c Oh, Anne Y.; Kacker, Ashutosh (December 2014). "Do electronic cigarettes impart a lower potential disease burden than conventional tobacco cigarettes?: Review on e-cigarette vapor versus tobacco smoke". The Laryngoscope. 124 (12): 2702–2706. PMID 25302452. doi:10.1002/lary.24750. 
  99. ^ Jimenez Ruiz, CA; Solano Reina, S; de Granda Orive, JI; Signes-Costa Minaya, J; de Higes Martinez, E; Riesco Miranda, JA; Altet Gómez, N; Lorza Blasco, JJ; Barrueco Ferrero, M; de Lucas Ramos, P (August 2014). "The electronic cigarette. Official statement of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy, safety and regulation of electronic cigarettes.". Archivos de bronconeumologia. 50 (8): 362–7. PMID 24684764. doi:10.1016/j.arbres.2014.02.006. 
  100. ^ a b John Reid Blackwell. "Avail Vapor offers glimpse into the 'art and science' of e-liquids". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  101. ^ E-Liquid Manufacturing Standards (PDF). US: AMERICAN E-LIQUID MANUFACTURING STANDARDS ASSOCIATION (AEMSA). 2015. pp. 1–13. 
  102. ^ "More than a quarter-million youth who had never smoked a cigarette used e-cigarettes in 2013". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  103. ^ a b c Framework Convention Alliance on Tobacco Control. "FCA Policy briefing Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems" (PDF). fctc.org. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
  104. ^ a b "Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)". US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  105. ^ a b c d McNeill, A, SC (2015). "E – cigarettes: an evidence update A report commissioned by Public Health England" (PDF). gov.uk. UK: Public Health England. p. 15. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  106. ^ National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. "Electronic cigarettes: A briefing for stop smoking services". ncsct.co.uk. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
  107. ^ a b WHO (August 2016). "Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Electronic Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS/ENNDS)" (PDF). pp. 1–11. 
  108. ^ "WHO Right to Call for E-Cigarette Regulation". World Lung Federation. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  109. ^ a b McNeill, A, SC (2015). "E – cigarettes: an evidence update A report commissioned by Public Health England" (PDF). gov.uk. UK: Public Health England. p. 76. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  110. ^ a b "Electronic cigarettes". Smokefree NHS. Are e-cigarettes safe to use?. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  111. ^ "Stop smoking treatments". UK National Health Service. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  112. ^ Royal College of Physicians. "Promote e-cigarettes widely as substitute for smoking says new RCP report". rcplondon.ac.uk. Retrieved 7 May 2017. 
  113. ^ "E-cigarette Ads and Youth". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  114. ^ "Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults, Including Pregnant Women: Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy Interventions". United States Preventive Services Task Force. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  115. ^ "DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)". National Institute on Drug Abuse. August 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  116. ^ Farber HJ, Walley SC, Groner JA, Nelson KE (2015). "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" (PDF). Pediatrics. 136 (5): 1008–1017. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 26504137. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-3108. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  117. ^ a b c d e Bhatnagar, A.; Whitsel, L.P.; Ribisl, K.M.; Bullen, C.; Chaloupka, F.; Piano, M.R.; Robertson, R.M.; McAuley, T.; Goff, D.; Benowitz, N. (24 August 2014). "Electronic Cigarettes: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association". Circulation. 130 (16): 1418–1436. PMID 25156991. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000107. 
  118. ^ "CDC launches powerful new ads in 'Tips From Former Smokers' campaign". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 26 March 2015. 
  119. ^ Knight-West, O; Bullen, C (2016). "E-cigarettes for the management of nicotine addiction.". Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation. 7: 111–8. PMC 4993405 . PMID 27574480. doi:10.2147/SAR.S94264. 
  120. ^ Glasser, AM; Collins, L; Pearson, JL; Abudayyeh, H; Niaura, RS; Abrams, DB; Villanti, AC (30 November 2016). "Overview of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Systematic Review.". American journal of preventive medicine. PMID 27914771. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2016.10.036. 
  121. ^ El Dib, R; Suzumura, EA; Akl, EA; Gomaa, H; Agarwal, A; Chang, Y; Prasad, M; Ashoorion, V; Heels-Ansdell, D; Maziak, W; Guyatt, G (23 February 2017). "Electronic nicotine delivery systems and/or electronic non-nicotine delivery systems for tobacco smoking cessation or reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.". BMJ Open. 7 (2): e012680. PMC 5337697 . PMID 28235965. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012680. 
  122. ^ a b c Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A (2016). "E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 4: 116–128. PMID 26776875. doi:10.1016/s2213-2600(15)00521-4. 
  123. ^ a b c Rahman, Muhammad Aziz (30 March 2015). "E-Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLOS ONE. 10: e0122544. PMC 4378973 . PMID 25822251. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122544. 
  124. ^ Khoudigian, S; Devji, T; Lytvyn, L; Campbell, K; Hopkins, R; O'Reilly, D (29 January 2016). "The efficacy and short-term effects of electronic cigarettes as a method for smoking cessation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.". International journal of public health. 61: 257–67. PMID 26825455. doi:10.1007/s00038-016-0786-z. 
  125. ^ Malas, M; van der Tempel, J; Schwartz, R; Minichiello, A; Lightfoot, C; Noormohamed, A; Andrews, J; Zawertailo, L; Ferrence, R (25 April 2016). "Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review.". Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco: ntw119. PMID 27113014. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntw119. 
  126. ^ Orellana-Barrios, MA; Payne, D; Medrano-Juarez, RM; Yang, S; Nugent, K (October 2016). "Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.". The American journal of the medical sciences. 352 (4): 420–426. PMID 27776725. doi:10.1016/j.amjms.2016.07.013. 
  127. ^ a b Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Begh, Rachna; Stead, Lindsay F; Hajek, Peter; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie (2016). "Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 9: CD010216. PMID 27622384. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010216.pub3. 
  128. ^ a b c d e f Cahn, Z.; Siegel, M. (February 2011). "Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: a step forward or a repeat of past mistakes?". Journal of public health policy. 32 (1): 16–31. PMID 21150942. doi:10.1057/jphp.2010.41. 
  129. ^ Saitta, D.; Ferro, G.A.; Polosa, R. (3 February 2014). "Achieving appropriate regulations for electronic cigarettes". Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease. 5 (2): 6. PMC 3926346 . PMID 24587890. doi:10.1177/2040622314521271. 
  130. ^ Weaver, Michael; Breland, Alison; Spindle, Tory; Eissenberg, Thomas (2014). "Electronic Cigarettes". Journal of Addiction Medicine. 8 (4): 234–240. ISSN 1932-0620. PMC 4123220 . PMID 25089953. doi:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000043. 
  131. ^ Franck, C; Filion, KB; Kimmelman, J; Grad, R; Eisenberg, MJ (17 May 2016). "Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.". Respiratory Research. 17 (1): 53. PMC 4869264 . PMID 27184265. doi:10.1186/s12931-016-0370-3. 
  132. ^ a b c Drummond, M.B.; Upson, D (February 2014). "Electronic cigarettes: Potential harms and benefits". Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 11 (2): 236–42. PMID 24575993. doi:10.1513/annalsats.201311-391fr. 
  133. ^ McNeill, A, SC (2015). "E – cigarettes: an evidence update A report commissioned by Public Health England" (PDF). gov.uk. UK: Public Health England. p. 65. Retrieved 20 August 2015. 
  134. ^ a b c d Saitta, D; Ferro, GA; Polosa, R (Mar 2014). "Achieving appropriate regulations for electronic cigarettes". Therapeutic advances in chronic disease. 5 (2): 50–61. PMC 3926346 . PMID 24587890. doi:10.1177/2040622314521271. 
  135. ^ a b Nowak D, Jörres RA, Rüther T (2014). "E-cigarettes—prevention, pulmonary health, and addiction". Dtsch Arztebl Int. 111 (20): 349–55. PMC 4047602 . PMID 24882626. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2014.0349. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  136. ^ "BMA calls for stronger regulation of e-cigarettes" (PDF). British Medical Association. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  137. ^ "Principles to Guide AAPHP Tobacco Policy". American Association of Public Health Physicians. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  138. ^ a b c Edgar, Julie. "E-Cigarettes: Expert Q&A With the CDC". WebMD. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  139. ^ Detailed reference list is located on a separate image page.
  140. ^ Cancer Research UK. "Cancer Research UK Briefing: Electronic Cigarettes" (PDF). cancerresearchuk.org. Retrieved 20 March 2016. 
  141. ^ Odum, L.E.; O'Dell, K.A.; Schepers, J.S. (December 2012). "Electronic cigarettes: do they have a role in smoking cessation?". Journal of pharmacy practice. 25 (6): 611–4. PMID 22797832. doi:10.1177/0897190012451909. 
  142. ^ O'Connor, R.J. (March 2012). "Non-cigarette tobacco products: what have we learnt and where are we headed?". Tobacco control. 21 (2): 181–90. PMC 3716250 . PMID 22345243. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050281. 
  143. ^ Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Le Houezec, Jacques (29 September 2015). "Regulation in the face of uncertainty: the evidence on electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes)". Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 8: 157–167. PMC 4598199 . PMID 26457058. doi:10.2147/RMHP.S62116. 
  144. ^ Polosa R, Campagna D, Caponnetto P (2015). "What to advise to respiratory patients intending to use electronic cigarettes". Discov Med. 20 (109): 155–61. PMID 26463097. 
  145. ^ Polosa R (2015). "Electronic cigarette use and harm reversal: emerging evidence in the lung". BMC Med. 13: 54. PMC 4365531 . PMID 25857426. doi:10.1186/s12916-015-0298-3. 
  146. ^ "The Potential Adverse Health Consequences of Exposure to Electronic Cigarettes and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems". Oncology Nursing Forum. 42 (5): 445–446. 2015. ISSN 0190-535X. PMID 26302273. doi:10.1188/15.ONF.445-446. 
  147. ^ a b c Durmowicz, E.L. (2014). "The impact of electronic cigarettes on the paediatric population". Tobacco Control. 23 (Supplement 2): ii41–ii46. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 3995262 . PMID 24732163. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051468. 
  148. ^ a b Bertholon, J.F.; Becquemin, M.H.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Dautzenberg, B. (2013). "Electronic Cigarettes: A Short Review". Respiration. 86: 433–8. ISSN 1423-0356. PMID 24080743. doi:10.1159/000353253. 
  149. ^ McNeill, A, PH. "Underpinning evidence for the estimate that e-cigarette use is around 95% safer than smoking: authors’ note". gov.uk. Public Health England. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  150. ^ a b Polosa, R.; Campagna, D.; Caponnetto, P. (September 2015). "What to advise to respiratory patients intending to use electronic cigarettes". Discovery medicine. 20 (109): 155–61. PMID 26463097. 
  151. ^ Kosmider, Leon; et al. (September 2014). "Carbonyl Compounds in Electronic Cigarette Vapors: Effects of Nicotine Solvent and Battery Output Voltage". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 16 (10): 1319–1326. ISSN 1462-2203. PMID 24832759. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntu078. 
  152. ^ a b Jerry JM, Collins GB, Streem D (2015). "E-cigarettes: Safe to recommend to patients?". Cleve Clin J Med. 82 (8): 521–6. PMID 26270431. doi:10.3949/ccjm.82a.14054. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  153. ^ "The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General, 2014, Chapter 5 - Nicotine" (PDF). Surgeon General of the United States. 2014. pp. 107–138. 
  154. ^ Benowitz, NL; Fraiman, JB (23 March 2017). "Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes.". Nature Reviews Cardiology. PMID 28332500. doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2017.36. 
  155. ^ Pisinger, Charlotta; Døssing, Martin (December 2014). "A systematic review of health effects of electronic cigarettes". Preventive Medicine. 69: 248–260. PMID 25456810. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.10.009. 
  156. ^ Chang, H. (2014). "Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes". Tobacco Control. 23 (Supplement 2): ii54–ii58. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 3995274 . PMID 24732165. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051480. 
  157. ^ Public Health England. "E-cigarettes in public places and workplaces: a 5-point guide to policy making". uk.gov. Retrieved 7 May 2017. 
  158. ^ Hess, IM; Lachireddy, K; Capon, A (15 April 2016). "A systematic review of the health risks from passive exposure to electronic cigarette vapour.". Public health research & practice. 26 (2). PMID 27734060. doi:10.17061/phrp2621617. 
  159. ^ "State Health Officer's Report on E-Cigarettes: A Community Health Threat" (PDF). California Department of Public Health, California Tobacco Control Program. January 2015. 
  160. ^ Linda J. Vorvick (2013-08-29). "Nicotine and Tobacco". Medline Plus. Retrieved 2015-05-21. 
  161. ^ Palazzolo, Dominic L. (Nov 2013). "Electronic cigarettes and vaping: a new challenge in clinical medicine and public health. A literature review.". Frontiers in Public Health. 1 (56). PMC 3859972 . PMID 24350225. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2013.00056. 
  162. ^ a b Schroeder, M.J.; Hoffman, A.C. (2014). "Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology". Tobacco Control. 23 (Supplement 2): ii30–ii35. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 3995273 . PMID 24732160. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051469. 
  163. ^ a b "DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)". National Institute on Drug Abuse. September 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  164. ^ Evans, S.E.; Hoffman, A.C. (2014). "Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects". Tobacco Control. 23 (Supplement 2): ii23–ii29. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 3995256 . PMID 24732159. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051489. 
  165. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC) (6 September 2013). "Notes from the field: electronic cigarette use among middle and high school students – United States, 2011–2012". MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 62 (35): 729–30. PMID 24005229. 
  166. ^ "Teens like different forms of tobacco and nicotine". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 20 September 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015. 
  167. ^ "Position Statement on Electronic Cigarettes [ECs] or Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems [ENDS]" (PDF). The International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. October 2013. 
  168. ^ Korioth, Trisha. "E-cigarettes easy to buy, can hook kids on nicotine". The American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  169. ^ "FDA Warns of Health Risks Posed by E-Cigarettes". FDA. 23 July 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2013—Reviewed 17 September 2013 
  170. ^ Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden (2014). "Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour and its consistency across batches: regulatory implications" (PDF). Addiction. 109 (3): 500–507. ISSN 0965-2140. PMID 24345184. doi:10.1111/add.12410. 
  171. ^ Noah Charney (7 December 2014). "America's vaping revolution: How suspicious should we really be of the e-cigarette craze?". Salon magazine. 
  172. ^ "US Patent 3200819. Smokeless non-tobacco cigarette". Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  173. ^ a b c Mary Bellis (2015). "Who Invented Electronic Cigarettes?". About.com. 
  174. ^ a b P.H. (17 March 2014). "A case of the vapers". The Economist. 
  175. ^ Julie Beck (13 June 2014). "Schrödinger's Cigarette: Is Electronic Safer?". The Atlantic. 
  176. ^ Millstein, Seth (25 April 2009). "The Push to Ban E-Cigarettes: Where's the Proof?". TimeLine. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2016. 
  177. ^ "Electronic Cigarette Sales on the Rise". WalesOnline. 24 August 2011. 
  178. ^ a b c d Sridi, Nicolas (10 July 2013). "I was sure that the electronic cigarette would be welcomed with open arms". Sciences et Avenir. 
  179. ^ "Electronic Atomization Cigarette". Worldwide.espacenet.com. 22 November 2007. 
  180. ^ a b "Dragonite Sells E-Vapor Business To ITG". Convenient Store Decisions. 21 August 2013. 
  181. ^ Tom Hancock (1 October 2013). "China's e-cigarette inventor fights for financial rewards". Fox News Channel. 
  182. ^ a b c d e f g Michael Grothaus (1 October 2014). "Trading addictions: the inside story of the e-cig modding scene". Engadget. 
  183. ^ a b Annabel Denham (10 June 2013). "Brothers who took a punt on a new market". CityAM. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  184. ^ a b c d e f g Mike K (9 June 2015). "What Does The Future Hold For Vaping Technology?". Steve K's Vaping World. 
  185. ^ Akam, Simon (27 May 2015). "Big Tobacco fights back: how the cigarette kings bought the vaping industry". Newsweek. Retrieved 22 February 2016. 
  186. ^ "Kodak moment". The Economist. 28 September 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  187. ^ a b Mike Esterl (3 February 2014). "Altria Expands in E-Cigarettes With Green Smoke". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  188. ^ Brian Montopoli (11 June 2013). "Tobacco companies bet on electronic cigarettes". CBS News. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  189. ^ Sanchez Manning (29 July 2013). "British American Tobacco enters electronic cigarette market in Britain with the 'Vype'". The Independent. 
  190. ^ Gustafsson, Katarina (2 September 2013). "Imperial Tobacco Agrees to Acquire Dragonite's E-Cigarette Unit". Bloomberg. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  191. ^ "Lorillard, Inc. Acquires British-based SKYCIG, Expanding its Electronic Cigarette Business". Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  192. ^ "Lorillard to Rebrand SKYCIG as blu eCigs". Convenience Store News. 27 March 2014. 
  193. ^ a b "Altria Completes Acquisition of Green Smoke". BusinessWire. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  194. ^ Gideon Spanier (26 June 2014). "Philip Morris buys e-cigarette maker Nicocigs as it warns of falling profits". The Independent. 
  195. ^ a b "Japan Tobacco's Global Ambitions Lead to Logic Acquisition". Convenience Store News. 30 April 2015. 
  196. ^ Mangan, Dan (15 July 2014). "Feeling blu? E-cig company spun off in major tobacco deal". CNBC. 
  197. ^ Koebler, Jason (25 September 2014). "Big Tobacco Has Officially Lost Its Hold on the E-Cigarette Market". Motherboard. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  198. ^ a b c d e Couts, Andrew (13 May 2013). "Inside the world of vapers, the subculture that might save smokers' lives". Digital Trends. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  199. ^ Park, Andy (26 August 2013). "The Feed: The subculture around e-cigarettes". SBS World News. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  200. ^ Barbeau, Amanda M; Burda, Jennifer; Siegel, Michael (2013). "Perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e-cigarette users: a qualitative approach". Addiction Science & Clinical Practice. 8 (1): 5. ISSN 1940-0640. PMC 3599549 . PMID 23497603. doi:10.1186/1940-0640-8-5. 
  201. ^ a b Eric Larson (25 January 2014). "Pimp My Vape: The Rise of E-Cigarette Hackers". Mashable. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  202. ^ Molly Osberg (25 February 2014). "CVape life: welcome to the weird world of e-cig evangelists". The Verge. 
  203. ^ a b McKee, M. (2014). "Electronic cigarettes: peering through the smokescreen" (PDF). Postgraduate Medical Journal. 90 (1069): 607–609. ISSN 0032-5473. PMID 25294933. doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2014-133029. 
  204. ^ a b Jacobs, Emma; Robinson, Duncan (17 April 2014). "E-cigarettes: no smoke without fear". FT Magazine. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  205. ^ Tom Gara (14 April 2014). "Are E-Cigarettes Losing Ground in the Vapor Market?". The Wall Street Journal. 
  206. ^ Sottile, Leah (8 October 2014). "The Right to Vape". The Atlantic. Retrieved 28 February 2016. 
  207. ^ Gavin Haynes (22 April 2015). "Daft vapers: the competitive world of e-cigarette smoking". The Guardian. 
  208. ^ Mike Esterl (29 May 2014). "'Vaporizers' Are the New Draw in E-Cigarettes". The Wall Street Journal. 
  209. ^ Staff (13 February 2014). "Generation V E-Cigarettes and Vape Bar aims to convert smokers to e-cigarettes". Daily Nebraskan. 
  210. ^ Neil Nisperos (4 September 2014). "Vaping convention coming to Ontario Convention Center Friday". Inland Valley Daily Bulletin. 
  211. ^ Mary Plass (29 January 2014). "The Cloud Chasers". Vape News Magazine. 
  212. ^ a b c Sean Cooper (23 May 2014). "What you need to know about vaporizers". Engadget. 
  213. ^ Dominique Mosbergen (5 August 2014). "This Man Is An Athlete In The Sport Of 'Cloud Chasing'". The Huffington Post. 
  214. ^ Victoria Bekiempis (1 April 2015). "Veteran E-Cigarette Users Fret 'Cloud Chasers' Give Them a Bad Name". Newsweek. 
  215. ^ Fallon, Claire (19 November 2014). "'Vape' Is Oxford Dictionaries' Word Of The Year". The Huffington Post. 
  216. ^ Etter, J. F.; Bullen, C.; Flouris, A. D.; Laugesen, M.; Eissenberg, T. (May 2011). "Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda". Tobacco control. 20 (3): 243–8. PMC 3215262 . PMID 21415064. doi:10.1136/tc.2010.042168. 
  217. ^ a b Beard, Emma; Shahab, Lion; Cummings, Damian M.; Michie, Susan; West, Robert (2016). "New Pharmacological Agents to Aid Smoking Cessation and Tobacco Harm Reduction: What Has Been Investigated, and What Is in the Pipeline?". CNS Drugs. ISSN 1172-7047. PMID 27421270. doi:10.1007/s40263-016-0362-3. 
  218. ^ Barnaby Page (5 March 2015). "World's law-makers favour basing e-cig rules on tobacco". ECigIntelligence. Tamarind Media Limited. 
  219. ^ Lempert, Lauren K; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A (2016). "The importance of product definitions in US e-cigarette laws and regulations". Tobacco Control. 25 (e1): e44–e51. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 4466213 . PMID 25512432. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051913. 
  220. ^ a b "U.S. Department of Transportation Explicitly Bans the Use of Electronic Cigarettes on Commercial Flights". March 2, 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  221. ^ Sienuic, Kat (29 September 2014). "Public health officers tackle hazy issue of e-cigarettes". The Globe and Mail. 
  222. ^ Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C. (2015). "A review of the current geographic distribution of and debate surrounding electronic cigarette clean air regulations in the United States". Health & Place. 31: 75–82. ISSN 1353-8292. PMC 4305454 . PMID 25463920. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.11.003. 
  223. ^ "E-cigarettes to be stubbed out for under-18s". BBC News. 26 January 2014. 
  224. ^ a b c "The Facts on the FDA's New Tobacco Rule". US Department of Health and Human Services. US Food and Drug Administration. 7 August 2016. 
  225. ^ "Retailer Overview of FDA Regulations for Selling Tobacco Products". US Department of Health and Human Services. US Food and Drug Administration. 8 August 2016. 
  226. ^ Eric Lipton (2 September 2016). "A Lobbyist Wrote the Bill. Will the Tobacco Industry Win Its E-Cigarette Fight?". The New York Times. 
  227. ^ Gray, Eliza (27 February 2014). "Europe Sets New Rules for E-Cigs While the U.S. Drags Its Feet". Time (magazine). 
  228. ^ "Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Regulations on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products". Federal Register. US Food and Drug Administration. 79 (80): 23142–23207. 25 April 2014. 
  229. ^ Sabrina Tavernise (24 April 2014). "F.D.A. Will Propose New Regulations for E-Cigarettes". The New York Times. 
  230. ^ National Conference of State Legislatures (5 May 2016). "Alternative Nicotine Products Electronic Cigarettes". National Conference of State Legislatures. 
  231. ^ Cervellin, Gianfranco; Borghi, Loris; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Meschi, Tiziana; Favaloro, Emmanuel; Lippi, Giuseppe (2013). "E-Cigarettes and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Science and Mysticism". Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. 40 (01): 060–065. ISSN 0094-6176. PMID 24343348. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1363468. 
  232. ^ Maloney, Erin K.; Cappella, Joseph N. (2015). "Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?". Health Communication. 31: 1–10. ISSN 1041-0236. PMID 25758192. doi:10.1080/10410236.2014.993496.
Electronic Cigarette

Electronic cigarette

 UK

[Thorpe] Welcometo Beyond the Data.

I'm Dr.

Phoebe Thorpe, and herewith me today is Dr.

Brian King from CDC's Office onSmoking and Health.

Thank you for joining us Brian.

[King] Thanks somuch for having me.

It's a pleasure to be here.

[Thorpe] Our topictoday is E-cigarettes.

Can you tell us why they areconsidered a tobacco product? [King] Yes, so in the UnitedStates we regulate tobacco products through the US Foodand Drug Administration, and the way they describe atobacco product is any product that's made or derivedfrom tobacco.

And we know that the vastmajority of nicotine that's used in tobacco products,including e-cigarettes, is indeed derived from tobacco.

So since these productscontain nicotine, we consider them a tobaccoproduct in the United States.

[Thorpe] And E-cigarettesare little bit different than regular cigarettes.

Can you describe how they work? [King] Yeah, so E-cigarettes isshort for electronic cigarettes, but we know them by alot of different names.

And they can be calledthings like vapor products, hookah pens, vape pens, butthe bottom line is they're all really the same product.

And they work by containinga liquid that's heated which the user then inhales intotheir lungs, and it's important to note that this isn'ttechnically a vapor which is how peoplefrequently refer to.

It's actually an aerosol thatcontains small particles as well as various other ingredientsthat the user inhales, and so there's no combustion.

You're not burning anything, butthere is a heating of the liquid which turns into an aerosolwhich the user inhales.

And they can alsoexhale into the air as other bystandersare around them.

[Thorpe] And the aerosolis not just water vapor.

I mean, that's animportant part to understand because I get asked as aphysician about E-cigarettes, and the thing from the session that I found veryinteresting was the idea that were not reallycertain about the risks that flavorings addto E-cigarettes.

The one that was mentioned wasthe butter flavoring Diacetyl that has been associatedwith bronchiolitis obliterans or what's called popcorn lung,which is a deadly disease.

What more do we know aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes? [King] So our knowledgeabout what's contained in both the E-cigaretteliquid as well as the aerosol hascontinued to evolve over time that these products enteredthe United States marketplace in around 2007.

They didn't really start touptick in use until 2010, 2011.

But, since that time, we reallyincreased the amount of research into what these productscontain.

And what we can say isthat the aerosol admitted by these productsis not harmless.

We do know that the ingredients and the levels aresignificantly less dangerous than conventional cigarettes,but that doesn't mean that they're completelyrisk-free.

And so, some of theingredients we found in the E-cigaretteaerosol are things like ultrafine particulatethat can be inhaled very deep into the lungs, and alsoheavy metals that are found in the filaments of the deviceand are omitted in the aerosol, as well as, things likevolatile organic compounds.

But one of the most commoningredients is nicotine, and we know that nicotineis highly addictive.

But there's alsoevidence indicating that it can harm thedeveloping adolescent brain which really makes itimportant for youth to avoid these devices.

In addition to some of theseother harmful ingredients, we also know the flavorings.

And so, Diacetyl is justone, but there are a variety of different flavoringsthat are used that, although they may be safe toingest in things like food, we don't know what the risks are for inhaling thesedevices into the lungs.

You know, your gut can handlea lot more than your lungs, and that's reallyimportant when we look at the ingredientsin these products.

And finally, it's alsoimportant to remember that people are using a lotof things in E-cigarettes, and that includes otherpsychoactive substances like marijuana andTHC and others.

And so, when we are talkingabout youth in particular, the use of both the nicotinecontaining varieties as well as other varietiesfor other types of drugs are really apublic health concern.

[Thorpe] Okay.

But we have had somerecent good news about the youth meaningmiddle school and high school useof E-cigarettes.

Can you tell me about that? [King] Yes.

It's really a commendablepublic health accomplishment.

We started assessing E-cigaretteuse among youth in this country in 2011, and through 2015,we saw exponential increases in the use of this product.

And 2016 was the first time that we actually saw declineamong youth in this country, and that was really a resultof the coordinated efforts to not only educate thepublic about the harms of youth E-cigarette use but also implementingcommon sense strategies to not only prevent youth accessbut also to protect people from the aerosol andpublic environments and various other campaigns to educate peopleabout these products.

But, on balance, the badnews is that we still have over 2 million youth thatare using E-cigarettes, and they're now the mostcommonly used tobacco products used among US youth.

So we made great progress,but we really need to continue that momentum toreduce all forms of tobacco productuse among youth.

[Thorpe] So it's going down, butnot as lot much as we'd like.

So what's driving the use ofthe E-cigarettes in teens? [King] So there's avariety of factors that we believe are contributingto these increased rates of use among youth thatwe saw through 2015.

One of the most notable is theadvertising for these products.

We know that many of the themesand tactics that have been used to advertise conventionalcigarettes are frequently used for E-cigarettes.

And we also know thatthere's some media of for which conventional cigaretteadvertising is banned that is allowed forE-cigarettes.

Things like television.

And so, there's reallya prominent advertising of these products, and we know that it's reachingkids in particular.

About 18 million US youthreported being exposed to E-cigarette ads in 2014.

Another factor isflavorings, and we know, from the existing science, that flavorings can beparticularly appealing in terms of enticing youth and youngadults to use tobacco products.

And a variety of E-cigarettesare flavored, and we know, from the existing data, thatabout two thirds of youth who use these cigarettes reportusing flavored varieties, and flavors are the mostcommonly cited reason for why youth startedusing these products.

And so, in the end, wereally have a situation where you know the advertisingis bringing the horse to water.

The flavorings aregetting them to drink, and then the nicotine is keepingthem coming back for more.

And so, it's kind of aperfect storm in terms of the youth rates of this use.

But the good news is, we knowwhat works to prevent that.

And if we implement those commonsense public health strategies, we can continue to seethe declines that we saw within the past yearamong our nation's youth.

[Thorpe] And the realconcern is about nicotine and the teenage brain.

Can you just briefly tell mea little bit more about that? [King] Yeah.

So nicotine is found in thevast majority of E-cigarettes that are sold on the U.

S.

marketand, you know, nicotine we use in things like nicotinereplacement therapy among adults.

And it can be, youknow, an effective drug to help people quitconventional cigarette smoking.

But it's important to note thatthose are in very measured doses and weans the individual off of conventional cigarettesover time.

But nicotine is notnecessarily risk-free.

Particularly forvulnerable populations.

We know that nicotineis highly addictive, but there's also a growingbody of scientific evidence that was outlined in a recentSurgeon General's Report noting that nicotine exposure can harmthe developing adolescent brain.

And we know that thebrain continues to develop into young adulthood upthrough 25 or 26, and so, there's really implicationsfor not only youth use of these products butalso young adult use of any nicotine containingproduct.

And another thing to remember with nicotine is it'salso been shown to result in adverse health outcomesamong pregnant women in particularly fetal toxicity.

So there's also implications about pregnant womenusing any form of nicotine containing product,and so, it's really important for them to talk with theirphysician before they use any type of nicotine containingproduct including E-cigarettes.

[Thorpe] So is there a placethat physicians could go to learn a little bitmore about these parts with the E-cigarettesand the nicotine? [King] So there's many resourcesthat have been developed over the past fewyears, particularly as the sciences begun to grow.

And we have, you know,more concrete evidence about what works effectivelyto help warn people about these products and alsoprovide them scientific-based information to makeinformed decisions.

And in 2016, the U.

S.

SurgeonGeneral released a landmark report on E-cigarette useamong youth and young adults.

And as part of therelease of that report, there were severalmaterials including resources and provider cards to helphealth professionals really communicate to both childrenand adults about these products.

And so, in the context of youth, it really enforces theimportance of warning them about the dangersof these products.

Particularly with regardto the nicotine content.

And among adults, it's amore nuanced conversation about knowing that we dohave FDA approved medications to help people quit, and thoseshould really be the first line of defense to help you quit.

And if that doesn't work, youcan consider E-cigarettes, but in consultation withyour healthcare provider.

And right now, based onthe evidence we have, there is no conclusive evidencethat E-cigarettes are effective for long-term cessation, andso, it's really important to use those resources thatwe know are most effective to help you quitand in coordination with your healthcare provider.

[Thorpe] And then foryouth, where if parents or other adults wanted to knowmore about how they could talk to teens and young adults aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes, where would they find someinformation about that? [King] So as part of the releaseof the Surgeon General's Report, there's an excellent interactivewebsite that was coordinated with the release of that report, and it isE-cigarettes.

Surgeongeneral.

Gov.

And it has a varietyof information on both the reportitself as well as a public service announcementas well as informational cards for both parents andclinicians to educate our youth and young adults in particularabout the dangers and risks of using these products.

[Thorpe] That sounds like anexcellent place for our viewers to go and see whatthey can find out.

Thank you very muchfor joining us.

[King] Thank you verymuch for having me.

[Thorpe] And thankyou for joining us.

See you next monthon Beyond the Data.


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK

Uk Made E Juice UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

Stop Smoking Electronic Cigarette

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

The entering into force of the requirements of the European tobacco products directive in Estonia made e-cigarette seller Nicorex Baltic destroy 19,000 bottles of e-cigarette liquid worth €135 000, as the packaging size did not meet the new requirements.

The liquids were actually in order, had undergone laboratory testing and met the new requirements, but their packaging did not have the necessary warnings on them and the boxes did not contain instructions.

Nicorex said that the transition period allowed by the government was too short, as the shelf life of the liquids was two years, but the length of the transition period only one year.

At the same time, Nicorex welcomed the requirement that the liquids have to undergo laboratory testing and that both the equipment and liquids must be registered in a single European database.

Nicorex described the restrictions concerning the size of packaging as unreasonable, as they increased the ecological footprint.

The transition period under the new tobacco law arising from the European tobacco products directive will end on May 20, after which the stricter requirements will apply to e-cigarettes in full.

Liquids can't be sold in containers bigger than 10 ml, they can't contain more nicotine than 20 milligrams per milliliter, and the vaporizer can't be bigger than 2 ml.

The packaging needs to include a leaflet, instructions, a batch number, a date, and a warning that nicotine is an addictive substance.

E Juice For Electronic Cigarette

Safety of electronic cigarettes

 UK

[Thorpe] Welcometo Beyond the Data.

I'm Dr.

Phoebe Thorpe, and herewith me today is Dr.

Brian King from CDC's Office onSmoking and Health.

Thank you for joining us Brian.

[King] Thanks somuch for having me.

It's a pleasure to be here.

[Thorpe] Our topictoday is E-cigarettes.

Can you tell us why they areconsidered a tobacco product? [King] Yes, so in the UnitedStates we regulate tobacco products through the US Foodand Drug Administration, and the way they describe atobacco product is any product that's made or derivedfrom tobacco.

And we know that the vastmajority of nicotine that's used in tobacco products,including e-cigarettes, is indeed derived from tobacco.

So since these productscontain nicotine, we consider them a tobaccoproduct in the United States.

[Thorpe] And E-cigarettesare little bit different than regular cigarettes.

Can you describe how they work? [King] Yeah, so E-cigarettes isshort for electronic cigarettes, but we know them by alot of different names.

And they can be calledthings like vapor products, hookah pens, vape pens, butthe bottom line is they're all really the same product.

And they work by containinga liquid that's heated which the user then inhales intotheir lungs, and it's important to note that this isn'ttechnically a vapor which is how peoplefrequently refer to.

It's actually an aerosol thatcontains small particles as well as various other ingredientsthat the user inhales, and so there's no combustion.

You're not burning anything, butthere is a heating of the liquid which turns into an aerosolwhich the user inhales.

And they can alsoexhale into the air as other bystandersare around them.

[Thorpe] And the aerosolis not just water vapor.

I mean, that's animportant part to understand because I get asked as aphysician about E-cigarettes, and the thing from the session that I found veryinteresting was the idea that were not reallycertain about the risks that flavorings addto E-cigarettes.

The one that was mentioned wasthe butter flavoring Diacetyl that has been associatedwith bronchiolitis obliterans or what's called popcorn lung,which is a deadly disease.

What more do we know aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes? [King] So our knowledgeabout what's contained in both the E-cigaretteliquid as well as the aerosol hascontinued to evolve over time that these products enteredthe United States marketplace in around 2007.

They didn't really start touptick in use until 2010, 2011.

But, since that time, we reallyincreased the amount of research into what these productscontain.

And what we can say isthat the aerosol admitted by these productsis not harmless.

We do know that the ingredients and the levels aresignificantly less dangerous than conventional cigarettes,but that doesn't mean that they're completelyrisk-free.

And so, some of theingredients we found in the E-cigaretteaerosol are things like ultrafine particulatethat can be inhaled very deep into the lungs, and alsoheavy metals that are found in the filaments of the deviceand are omitted in the aerosol, as well as, things likevolatile organic compounds.

But one of the most commoningredients is nicotine, and we know that nicotineis highly addictive.

But there's alsoevidence indicating that it can harm thedeveloping adolescent brain which really makes itimportant for youth to avoid these devices.

In addition to some of theseother harmful ingredients, we also know the flavorings.

And so, Diacetyl is justone, but there are a variety of different flavoringsthat are used that, although they may be safe toingest in things like food, we don't know what the risks are for inhaling thesedevices into the lungs.

You know, your gut can handlea lot more than your lungs, and that's reallyimportant when we look at the ingredientsin these products.

And finally, it's alsoimportant to remember that people are using a lotof things in E-cigarettes, and that includes otherpsychoactive substances like marijuana andTHC and others.

And so, when we are talkingabout youth in particular, the use of both the nicotinecontaining varieties as well as other varietiesfor other types of drugs are really apublic health concern.

[Thorpe] Okay.

But we have had somerecent good news about the youth meaningmiddle school and high school useof E-cigarettes.

Can you tell me about that? [King] Yes.

It's really a commendablepublic health accomplishment.

We started assessing E-cigaretteuse among youth in this country in 2011, and through 2015,we saw exponential increases in the use of this product.

And 2016 was the first time that we actually saw declineamong youth in this country, and that was really a resultof the coordinated efforts to not only educate thepublic about the harms of youth E-cigarette use but also implementingcommon sense strategies to not only prevent youth accessbut also to protect people from the aerosol andpublic environments and various other campaigns to educate peopleabout these products.

But, on balance, the badnews is that we still have over 2 million youth thatare using E-cigarettes, and they're now the mostcommonly used tobacco products used among US youth.

So we made great progress,but we really need to continue that momentum toreduce all forms of tobacco productuse among youth.

[Thorpe] So it's going down, butnot as lot much as we'd like.

So what's driving the use ofthe E-cigarettes in teens? [King] So there's avariety of factors that we believe are contributingto these increased rates of use among youth thatwe saw through 2015.

One of the most notable is theadvertising for these products.

We know that many of the themesand tactics that have been used to advertise conventionalcigarettes are frequently used for E-cigarettes.

And we also know thatthere's some media of for which conventional cigaretteadvertising is banned that is allowed forE-cigarettes.

Things like television.

And so, there's reallya prominent advertising of these products, and we know that it's reachingkids in particular.

About 18 million US youthreported being exposed to E-cigarette ads in 2014.

Another factor isflavorings, and we know, from the existing science, that flavorings can beparticularly appealing in terms of enticing youth and youngadults to use tobacco products.

And a variety of E-cigarettesare flavored, and we know, from the existing data, thatabout two thirds of youth who use these cigarettes reportusing flavored varieties, and flavors are the mostcommonly cited reason for why youth startedusing these products.

And so, in the end, wereally have a situation where you know the advertisingis bringing the horse to water.

The flavorings aregetting them to drink, and then the nicotine is keepingthem coming back for more.

And so, it's kind of aperfect storm in terms of the youth rates of this use.

But the good news is, we knowwhat works to prevent that.

And if we implement those commonsense public health strategies, we can continue to seethe declines that we saw within the past yearamong our nation's youth.

[Thorpe] And the realconcern is about nicotine and the teenage brain.

Can you just briefly tell mea little bit more about that? [King] Yeah.

So nicotine is found in thevast majority of E-cigarettes that are sold on the U.

S.

marketand, you know, nicotine we use in things like nicotinereplacement therapy among adults.

And it can be, youknow, an effective drug to help people quitconventional cigarette smoking.

But it's important to note thatthose are in very measured doses and weans the individual off of conventional cigarettesover time.

But nicotine is notnecessarily risk-free.

Particularly forvulnerable populations.

We know that nicotineis highly addictive, but there's also a growingbody of scientific evidence that was outlined in a recentSurgeon General's Report noting that nicotine exposure can harmthe developing adolescent brain.

And we know that thebrain continues to develop into young adulthood upthrough 25 or 26, and so, there's really implicationsfor not only youth use of these products butalso young adult use of any nicotine containingproduct.

And another thing to remember with nicotine is it'salso been shown to result in adverse health outcomesamong pregnant women in particularly fetal toxicity.

So there's also implications about pregnant womenusing any form of nicotine containing product,and so, it's really important for them to talk with theirphysician before they use any type of nicotine containingproduct including E-cigarettes.

[Thorpe] So is there a placethat physicians could go to learn a little bitmore about these parts with the E-cigarettesand the nicotine? [King] So there's many resourcesthat have been developed over the past fewyears, particularly as the sciences begun to grow.

And we have, you know,more concrete evidence about what works effectivelyto help warn people about these products and alsoprovide them scientific-based information to makeinformed decisions.

And in 2016, the U.

S.

SurgeonGeneral released a landmark report on E-cigarette useamong youth and young adults.

And as part of therelease of that report, there were severalmaterials including resources and provider cards to helphealth professionals really communicate to both childrenand adults about these products.

And so, in the context of youth, it really enforces theimportance of warning them about the dangersof these products.

Particularly with regardto the nicotine content.

And among adults, it's amore nuanced conversation about knowing that we dohave FDA approved medications to help people quit, and thoseshould really be the first line of defense to help you quit.

And if that doesn't work, youcan consider E-cigarettes, but in consultation withyour healthcare provider.

And right now, based onthe evidence we have, there is no conclusive evidencethat E-cigarettes are effective for long-term cessation, andso, it's really important to use those resources thatwe know are most effective to help you quitand in coordination with your healthcare provider.

[Thorpe] And then foryouth, where if parents or other adults wanted to knowmore about how they could talk to teens and young adults aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes, where would they find someinformation about that? [King] So as part of the releaseof the Surgeon General's Report, there's an excellent interactivewebsite that was coordinated with the release of that report, and it isE-cigarettes.

Surgeongeneral.

Gov.

And it has a varietyof information on both the reportitself as well as a public service announcementas well as informational cards for both parents andclinicians to educate our youth and young adults in particularabout the dangers and risks of using these products.

[Thorpe] That sounds like anexcellent place for our viewers to go and see whatthey can find out.

Thank you very muchfor joining us.

[King] Thank you verymuch for having me.

[Thorpe] And thankyou for joining us.

See you next monthon Beyond the Data.


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK

Uk Made E Juice UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

Electronic Cigarette Ebay

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

The entering into force of the requirements of the European tobacco products directive in Estonia made e-cigarette seller Nicorex Baltic destroy 19,000 bottles of e-cigarette liquid worth €135 000, as the packaging size did not meet the new requirements.

The liquids were actually in order, had undergone laboratory testing and met the new requirements, but their packaging did not have the necessary warnings on them and the boxes did not contain instructions.

Nicorex said that the transition period allowed by the government was too short, as the shelf life of the liquids was two years, but the length of the transition period only one year.

At the same time, Nicorex welcomed the requirement that the liquids have to undergo laboratory testing and that both the equipment and liquids must be registered in a single European database.

Nicorex described the restrictions concerning the size of packaging as unreasonable, as they increased the ecological footprint.

The transition period under the new tobacco law arising from the European tobacco products directive will end on May 20, after which the stricter requirements will apply to e-cigarettes in full.

Liquids can't be sold in containers bigger than 10 ml, they can't contain more nicotine than 20 milligrams per milliliter, and the vaporizer can't be bigger than 2 ml.

The packaging needs to include a leaflet, instructions, a batch number, a date, and a warning that nicotine is an addictive substance.

Electronic Cigarette Ebay

2017 Beyond the Data -- E-cigarettes: An Emerging Public Health Challenge

 UK

[Thorpe] Welcometo Beyond the Data.

I'm Dr.

Phoebe Thorpe, and herewith me today is Dr.

Brian King from CDC's Office onSmoking and Health.

Thank you for joining us Brian.

[King] Thanks somuch for having me.

It's a pleasure to be here.

[Thorpe] Our topictoday is E-cigarettes.

Can you tell us why they areconsidered a tobacco product? [King] Yes, so in the UnitedStates we regulate tobacco products through the US Foodand Drug Administration, and the way they describe atobacco product is any product that's made or derivedfrom tobacco.

And we know that the vastmajority of nicotine that's used in tobacco products,including e-cigarettes, is indeed derived from tobacco.

So since these productscontain nicotine, we consider them a tobaccoproduct in the United States.

[Thorpe] And E-cigarettesare little bit different than regular cigarettes.

Can you describe how they work? [King] Yeah, so E-cigarettes isshort for electronic cigarettes, but we know them by alot of different names.

And they can be calledthings like vapor products, hookah pens, vape pens, butthe bottom line is they're all really the same product.

And they work by containinga liquid that's heated which the user then inhales intotheir lungs, and it's important to note that this isn'ttechnically a vapor which is how peoplefrequently refer to.

It's actually an aerosol thatcontains small particles as well as various other ingredientsthat the user inhales, and so there's no combustion.

You're not burning anything, butthere is a heating of the liquid which turns into an aerosolwhich the user inhales.

And they can alsoexhale into the air as other bystandersare around them.

[Thorpe] And the aerosolis not just water vapor.

I mean, that's animportant part to understand because I get asked as aphysician about E-cigarettes, and the thing from the session that I found veryinteresting was the idea that were not reallycertain about the risks that flavorings addto E-cigarettes.

The one that was mentioned wasthe butter flavoring Diacetyl that has been associatedwith bronchiolitis obliterans or what's called popcorn lung,which is a deadly disease.

What more do we know aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes? [King] So our knowledgeabout what's contained in both the E-cigaretteliquid as well as the aerosol hascontinued to evolve over time that these products enteredthe United States marketplace in around 2007.

They didn't really start touptick in use until 2010, 2011.

But, since that time, we reallyincreased the amount of research into what these productscontain.

And what we can say isthat the aerosol admitted by these productsis not harmless.

We do know that the ingredients and the levels aresignificantly less dangerous than conventional cigarettes,but that doesn't mean that they're completelyrisk-free.

And so, some of theingredients we found in the E-cigaretteaerosol are things like ultrafine particulatethat can be inhaled very deep into the lungs, and alsoheavy metals that are found in the filaments of the deviceand are omitted in the aerosol, as well as, things likevolatile organic compounds.

But one of the most commoningredients is nicotine, and we know that nicotineis highly addictive.

But there's alsoevidence indicating that it can harm thedeveloping adolescent brain which really makes itimportant for youth to avoid these devices.

In addition to some of theseother harmful ingredients, we also know the flavorings.

And so, Diacetyl is justone, but there are a variety of different flavoringsthat are used that, although they may be safe toingest in things like food, we don't know what the risks are for inhaling thesedevices into the lungs.

You know, your gut can handlea lot more than your lungs, and that's reallyimportant when we look at the ingredientsin these products.

And finally, it's alsoimportant to remember that people are using a lotof things in E-cigarettes, and that includes otherpsychoactive substances like marijuana andTHC and others.

And so, when we are talkingabout youth in particular, the use of both the nicotinecontaining varieties as well as other varietiesfor other types of drugs are really apublic health concern.

[Thorpe] Okay.

But we have had somerecent good news about the youth meaningmiddle school and high school useof E-cigarettes.

Can you tell me about that? [King] Yes.

It's really a commendablepublic health accomplishment.

We started assessing E-cigaretteuse among youth in this country in 2011, and through 2015,we saw exponential increases in the use of this product.

And 2016 was the first time that we actually saw declineamong youth in this country, and that was really a resultof the coordinated efforts to not only educate thepublic about the harms of youth E-cigarette use but also implementingcommon sense strategies to not only prevent youth accessbut also to protect people from the aerosol andpublic environments and various other campaigns to educate peopleabout these products.

But, on balance, the badnews is that we still have over 2 million youth thatare using E-cigarettes, and they're now the mostcommonly used tobacco products used among US youth.

So we made great progress,but we really need to continue that momentum toreduce all forms of tobacco productuse among youth.

[Thorpe] So it's going down, butnot as lot much as we'd like.

So what's driving the use ofthe E-cigarettes in teens? [King] So there's avariety of factors that we believe are contributingto these increased rates of use among youth thatwe saw through 2015.

One of the most notable is theadvertising for these products.

We know that many of the themesand tactics that have been used to advertise conventionalcigarettes are frequently used for E-cigarettes.

And we also know thatthere's some media of for which conventional cigaretteadvertising is banned that is allowed forE-cigarettes.

Things like television.

And so, there's reallya prominent advertising of these products, and we know that it's reachingkids in particular.

About 18 million US youthreported being exposed to E-cigarette ads in 2014.

Another factor isflavorings, and we know, from the existing science, that flavorings can beparticularly appealing in terms of enticing youth and youngadults to use tobacco products.

And a variety of E-cigarettesare flavored, and we know, from the existing data, thatabout two thirds of youth who use these cigarettes reportusing flavored varieties, and flavors are the mostcommonly cited reason for why youth startedusing these products.

And so, in the end, wereally have a situation where you know the advertisingis bringing the horse to water.

The flavorings aregetting them to drink, and then the nicotine is keepingthem coming back for more.

And so, it's kind of aperfect storm in terms of the youth rates of this use.

But the good news is, we knowwhat works to prevent that.

And if we implement those commonsense public health strategies, we can continue to seethe declines that we saw within the past yearamong our nation's youth.

[Thorpe] And the realconcern is about nicotine and the teenage brain.

Can you just briefly tell mea little bit more about that? [King] Yeah.

So nicotine is found in thevast majority of E-cigarettes that are sold on the U.

S.

marketand, you know, nicotine we use in things like nicotinereplacement therapy among adults.

And it can be, youknow, an effective drug to help people quitconventional cigarette smoking.

But it's important to note thatthose are in very measured doses and weans the individual off of conventional cigarettesover time.

But nicotine is notnecessarily risk-free.

Particularly forvulnerable populations.

We know that nicotineis highly addictive, but there's also a growingbody of scientific evidence that was outlined in a recentSurgeon General's Report noting that nicotine exposure can harmthe developing adolescent brain.

And we know that thebrain continues to develop into young adulthood upthrough 25 or 26, and so, there's really implicationsfor not only youth use of these products butalso young adult use of any nicotine containingproduct.

And another thing to remember with nicotine is it'salso been shown to result in adverse health outcomesamong pregnant women in particularly fetal toxicity.

So there's also implications about pregnant womenusing any form of nicotine containing product,and so, it's really important for them to talk with theirphysician before they use any type of nicotine containingproduct including E-cigarettes.

[Thorpe] So is there a placethat physicians could go to learn a little bitmore about these parts with the E-cigarettesand the nicotine? [King] So there's many resourcesthat have been developed over the past fewyears, particularly as the sciences begun to grow.

And we have, you know,more concrete evidence about what works effectivelyto help warn people about these products and alsoprovide them scientific-based information to makeinformed decisions.

And in 2016, the U.

S.

SurgeonGeneral released a landmark report on E-cigarette useamong youth and young adults.

And as part of therelease of that report, there were severalmaterials including resources and provider cards to helphealth professionals really communicate to both childrenand adults about these products.

And so, in the context of youth, it really enforces theimportance of warning them about the dangersof these products.

Particularly with regardto the nicotine content.

And among adults, it's amore nuanced conversation about knowing that we dohave FDA approved medications to help people quit, and thoseshould really be the first line of defense to help you quit.

And if that doesn't work, youcan consider E-cigarettes, but in consultation withyour healthcare provider.

And right now, based onthe evidence we have, there is no conclusive evidencethat E-cigarettes are effective for long-term cessation, andso, it's really important to use those resources thatwe know are most effective to help you quitand in coordination with your healthcare provider.

[Thorpe] And then foryouth, where if parents or other adults wanted to knowmore about how they could talk to teens and young adults aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes, where would they find someinformation about that? [King] So as part of the releaseof the Surgeon General's Report, there's an excellent interactivewebsite that was coordinated with the release of that report, and it isE-cigarettes.

Surgeongeneral.

Gov.

And it has a varietyof information on both the reportitself as well as a public service announcementas well as informational cards for both parents andclinicians to educate our youth and young adults in particularabout the dangers and risks of using these products.

[Thorpe] That sounds like anexcellent place for our viewers to go and see whatthey can find out.

Thank you very muchfor joining us.

[King] Thank you verymuch for having me.

[Thorpe] And thankyou for joining us.

See you next monthon Beyond the Data.


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK

Best E Liquid Cigarette UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

E Vapor Electronic Cigarette

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

  (Redirected from E-liquid) Aerosol (vapor) exhaled by an e-cigarette user.

The aerosol of electronic cigarettes is generated when the e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100–250 °C within a chamber.[1] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[2] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[3] In physics, a vapor is a substance in the gas phase whereas an aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid or both within a gas.[2] Vapor from an electronic cigarette simulates tobacco smoke, but the process of burning tobacco does not occur.[3] The aerosol is made-up of liquid sub-micron particles of condensed vapor,[4] which mostly consist of propylene glycol, glycerol, water, flavorings, nicotine, and other chemicals.[5] The various chemicals in the aerosol give rise to many issues concerning the safety of electronic cigarettes that have been much discussed.[2][5][6] After a puff, inhalation of the aerosol travels from the device into the mouth and lungs.[2] A 2014 review found that the particles emitted by e-cigarettes are comparable in size and number to particles in cigarette smoke, with the majority of them in the ultrafine range. The particles are of the ultrafine size which can go deep in the lungs and then into the systemic circulation. A 2014 review said local pulmonary toxicity may occur because metal nanoparticles can deposit in the lungs.[6] Others show that the quantities of metals emitted are minimal and permissible by medicinal standards.[5][7][8]

Various bottles of e-liquid.

After the aerosol is inhaled, it is exhaled.[2] Emissions from electronic cigarettes are not comparable to environmental pollution or cigarette smoke as their nature and chemical composition are completely different.[5] The particles are larger, with the mean size being 600 nm in inhaled aerosol and 300 nm in exhaled vapor.[9] Bystanders are exposed to these particles from exhaled e-cigarette vapor.[6] There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor exhaled by e-cigarette users can be inhaled by bystanders, particularly indoors, and have significant adverse effects.[10][11][12] Since e-cigarettes involve an aerosolization process, it is suggested that no meaningful amounts of carbon monoxide are emitted.[13] Thus, cardiocirculatory effects caused by carbon monoxide are not likely.[13] E-cigarette use by an expectant parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring.[14] E-cigarettes pose many safety concerns to children.[14] For example, indoor surfaces can accumulate nicotine where e-cigarettes were used, which may be inhaled by children, particularly youngsters, long after they were used.[14]

E-liquid is the mixture used in vapor products such as electronic cigarettes.[15] The main ingredients in the e-liquid usually are propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings.[16] However, there are e-liquids sold without propylene glycol, nicotine, or flavors.[15][17][18] The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin.[19] Propylene glycol and glycerine are used to produce the vapor while the flavoring provides the taste and aroma.[20] The flavorings may be natural or artificial.[9] About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014.[21] There are many e-liquids manufacturers in the USA and worldwide.[22] While there are currently no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid, the FDA has proposed regulations that were expected to be finalized in late 2015.[23] Industry standards have been created and published by the American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA).[24]

The vapor can contain nicotine and usually contains vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, flavors and aroma transporters.[8] The nicotine levels in the vapor varies either from puff-to-puff or among products of the same company.[2] A 2015 report commissioned by Public Health England concluded that e-cigarettes "release negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air".[25] E-cigarettes without nicotine are also available.[26] The vapor may also contain tiny amounts of toxicants, carcinogens, and heavy metals.[6][8] Contamination with various chemicals has been identified.[9] E-cigarette makers do not fully disclose information on the chemicals that can be released or synthesized during use.[2] The metals have been found in trace amounts in the vapor, some of them at higher amounts than in cigarette smoke.[5] The peak concentration of nicotine delivered by e-cigarette use is comparable to that produced by conventional cigarette smoking.[27]

An example of a commercial e-liquid and an advanced personal vaporizer.

E-liquid,[28] e-fluid, or e-juice[29] is the mixture used in vapor products including e-cigarettes.[15] E-Liquids come in many variations, including different nicotine strengths and many different flavors.[30] The main ingredients are propylene glycol, glycerine, and flavorings; and most often, nicotine in liquid form.[16] The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin, and the remaining 5% being flavorings and nicotine.[19] E-liquid can be made with or without nicotine, with >90% of e-liquids containing some level of nicotine.[31] The most regularly used base carrier chemical is propylene glycol with or without glycerin.[6] E-liquid containing glycerin and water made without propylene glycol are also sold.[15] Unless clearly stated, it is uncertain whether the nicotine used in e-liquid is manufactured using a United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade nicotine, a tobacco plant extract, tobacco dust or a synthetic nicotine.[32] Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers.[26] Although some e-juice is nicotine-free, surveys demonstrate that 97% of responders use products that contain nicotine.[17] A 2015 review suggests that 1% of users use liquid without nicotine.[33]

The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[34] An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[35] When the user pushes a button.[36] or inhales a pressure sensor activates the heating element that atomizes the liquid solution;[37] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100–250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[1] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[2] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[3] However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature where the user adjusts the vapor.[9] The vapor contains similar chemicals to the e-liquid which vary in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers.[2]

E-cigarettes produce particles, in the form of an aerosol.[2][38] In physics, a vapor is a substance in the gas phase whereas an aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid or both within a gas.[2] The aerosol is made-up of liquid sub-micron particles of condensed vapor,[38] which mostly consist of propylene glycol, glycerol, water, flavorings, nicotine, and other chemicals.[5] This aerosol that is produces resembles cigarette smoke.[2] After a puff, inhalation of the aerosol travels from the device into the mouth and lungs.[2]

A 2014 review found that the particles emitted by e-cigarettes are comparable in size and number to particles in cigarette smoke, with the majority of them in the ultrafine range. The ultrafine particles can go deep in the lungs and then into the systemic circulation. Pulmonary toxicity may occur because metal nanoparticles can deposit in the lungs.[6] The review also found that fine particles can be chemically intricate and not uniform, and what a particle is made of, the exact harmful elements, and the importance of the size of the particle is mostly unknown. They found that because these things are uncertain, it is not clear whether the ultrafine particles in e-cigarette vapor have health effects similar to those produced by traditional cigarettes.[6]

A 2014 WHO report found e-cigarettes release a lower level of particles than traditional cigarettes.[39] Comparable to a traditional cigarette, e-cigarette particles are tiny enough to enter the alveoli, enabling nicotine absorption.[29] E-cigarettes companies assert that the particulates produced by an e-cigarette are too tiny to be deposited in the alveoli.[40] Exactly what comprises the vapor varies in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers.[2] Different devices generate different particle sizes and cause different depositions in the respiratory tract, even from the same nicotine liquid.[41] Reports in the literature have shown respiratory and cardiovascular effects by these smaller size particles, suggesting a possible health concern.[42]

After the aerosol is inhaled, it is exhaled.[2] Emissions from electronic cigarettes are not comparable to environmental pollution or cigarette smoke as their nature and chemical composition are completely different.[5] The particles are larger, with the mean size being 600 nm in inhaled aerosol and 300 nm in exhaled vapor.[9] The exhaled aerosol particle concentration is 5 times lower from an e-cigarette than from a combustible tobacco cigarette.[43] The density of particles in the vapor is lower than in cigarette smoke by a factor of between 6 and 880 times lower.[5]

For particulate matter emissions, e-cigarettes slightly exceeded the WHO guidelines, but emissions were 15 times less than traditional cigarette use.[44] In January 2014, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease stated "Adverse health effects for exposed third parties (second-hand exposure) cannot be excluded because the use of electronic cigarettes leads to emission of fine and ultrafine inhalable liquid particles, nicotine and cancer-causing substances into indoor air."[45] The dense vapor consists of liquid sub-micron droplets.[38][dead link]

Since e-cigarettes have not been widely used long enough for evaluation, the long-term health effects from the second-hand vapor are not known.[6] There is insufficient data to determine the impact on public health from e-cigarettes.[46] The potential harm to bystanders from e-cigarettes is unknown.[47] This is because no long-term data is available.[8]

Since e-cigarettes do not burn (or contain) tobacco, no side-stream smoke or any cigarette smoke is produced.[6] Only what is exhaled by e-cigarettes users enters the surrounding air.[8] Exhaled vapor consists of nicotine and some other particles, primarily consisting of flavors, aroma transporters, glycerin and propylene glycol.[8] Bystanders are exposed to these particles from exhaled e-cigarette vapor.[6] A mixture of harmful substances, particularly nicotine, ultrafine particles, and volatile organic compounds can be exhaled into the air.[48] The liquid particles condenses into a viewable fog.[9] The vapor is in the air for a short time, with a half-life of about 10 seconds; traditional cigarette smoke is in the air 100 times longer.[9] This is because of fast revaporization at room temperature.[9]

There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor exhaled by e-cigarette users can be inhaled by bystanders, particularly indoors, and have significant adverse effects.[10][12] Since e-cigarettes involve an aerosolization process, it is suggested that no meaningful amounts of carbon monoxide are emitted.[13] Thus, cardiocirculatory effects caused by carbon monoxide are not likely.[13] However, in an experimental study, e-cigarettes increased levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surrounding air.[13]

E-cigarettes used in indoor environments can put at risk nonsmokers to elevated levels of nicotine and aerosol emissions.[43] Nonsmokers exposed to e-cigarette aerosol produced by a machine and pumped into a room were found to have detectable levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in their blood. The same study stated that 80% of nicotine is normally absorbed by the user, so these results may be higher than in actual second hand exposure.[6] In 2015 a report commissioned by Public Health England concluded that e-cigarettes "release negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air with no identified health risks to bystanders".[25]

A 2014 review of limited data concluded this vapor can cause indoor air pollution and is not just water vapor as is frequently stated in the advertising of e-cigarettes.[6] A 2014 practice guideline by NPS MedicineWise states, "Although data on health effects of passive vapour are currently lacking, the risks are argued to be small, but claims that e-cigarettes emit only water vapour are nevertheless incorrect. Serum cotinine levels (a metabolite of nicotine) have been found to be similar in bystanders exposed to either e-cigarette vapour or cigarette smoke."[49][50] The 2015 California Department of Public Health has reported that "Mainstream and second hand e-cigarette aerosol has been found to contain at least ten chemicals that are on California's Proposition 65 list of chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm."[51] However, it has been demonstrated that e-cigarettes causes nonusers to be exposed to nicotine but not to tobacco-related combustion toxicants.[10]

A no smoking or vaping sign from the US.

A white paper published in 2014 by the American Industrial Hygiene Association concluded e-cigarettes emit airborne contaminants that may be inhaled by the user and those nearby.[42] They urged indoors restrictions similar to smoking bans, until research has shown the aerosol has no risk of harm.[42] A 2014 review indicated that the levels of inhaled contaminants from the e-cigarette vapor are not of significant health concern for human exposures by the standards used in workplaces to ensure safety.[26] The use of e-cigarettes in a smoke-free area could expose non-users to toxins.[52] The effect on bystanders would likely be much less harmful than traditional cigarettes.[8]

2014 WHO report stated passive exposure was as a concern, indicating that current evidence is insufficient to determine whether the levels of exhaled vapor are safe to involuntarily exposed bystanders.[39] The report stated that "it is unknown if the increased exposure to toxicants and particles in exhaled aerosol will lead to an increased risk of disease and death among bystanders."[39] The British Medical Association (BMA) reported in 2013 that there are "concerns that the use of e-cigarettes could threaten the norm of not smoking in public places and workplaces."[53]

As of 2013[update], the only clinical study currently published evaluating the respiratory effects of passive vaping found no adverse effects were detected.[5] A 2014 review found it is safe to infer that their effects on bystanders are minimal in comparison to traditional cigarettes.[5] A E-cigarette vapor has notably fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke and is likely to pose less harm to users or bystanders.[6]

E-cigarette use by a parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring.[14] E-cigarettes pose many safety concerns to children.[14] For example, indoor surfaces can accumulate nicotine where e-cigarettes were used, which may be inhaled by children, particularly youngsters, long after they were used.[14] A policy statement by the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology has reported that "Third-hand exposure occurs when nicotine and other chemicals from second-hand aerosol deposit on surfaces, exposing people through touch, ingestion, and inhalation".[17] Public health England, looking at the available research said the amount of nicotine deposited was low and that an infant would have to lick 30 square meters to be exposed to 1 mg of nicotine.[25] The statement noted there are no published studies of third hand exposure from e-cigarettes, however initial data suggests that nicotine from e-cigarettes may stick to surfaces and would be hard to remove.[17]

The e-liquid is sold in bottles or pre-filled disposable cartridges, or as a kit for consumers to make their own e-juices.[54] Some vendors of e-liquids, offer options to change the amounts of flavorings or nicotine strengths, and build each bottle customized for the purchaser.[54] E-liquids are made with various tobacco, fruit, and other flavors,[6] as well as variable nicotine concentrations (including nicotine-free versions).[16] The standard notation "mg/ml" is often used on labels to denote nicotine concentration, and is sometimes shortened to "mg".[55] In surveys of regular e-cigarette users, the most popular e-liquids have a nicotine content of 18 mg/ml, and the preferred flavors were largely tobacco, mint and fruit.[8] A cartridge may contain 0 to 20 mg of nicotine.[48] EU regulations cap the concentration of nicotine in e-liquid at a maximum of 20 mg/mL.[29] A refill bottle can contain up to 1 g of nicotine.[48] Refill liquids are often sold in the size range from 15 to 30 mL.[56] One cartridge may typically last as long as one pack of cigarettes.[57] Some liquids without flavoring is also sold.[18] The flavorings may be natural or artificial.[9] There is even certified organic liquid.[58] About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014.[21] A user does not normally consume a whole cartridge in a single session.[59] Most e-liquids are produced by a few manufacturers in China, the US and Europe.[8] An e-cigarette user will usually obtain 300 to 500 puffs per mL of liquid.[56]

The two most common e-liquid bases are propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG).[60] Propylene glycol is tasteless and odorless, and therefore it doesn't affect the flavor of the e-liquid. It is known, however, to cause allergic reactions in some users, and in such case it is advised to stop the use immediately. Vegetable glycerin, on the other hand, is a lot thicker in consistency, and it doesn't cause allergic reactions. It also produces significantly more vapor, which has a slight sweet taste.[61][unreliable source?]

E-liquids are manufactured by many producers, both in the US and across the world.[22] First tier manufacturers use lab suits, gloves, hair covers, inside of certified clean rooms with air filtration similar to pharmaceutical-grade production areas.[22]

Standards for e-liquid manufacturing have been created by American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA), which is trade association dedicated to creating responsible and sustainable standards for the safe manufacturing of e-liquids used in vapor products.[62] AEMSA has published a comprehensive list standards and best known methods, which are openly available for use by any manufacturer of e-Liquids. The AEMSA standards cover nicotine, ingredients, sanitary manufacturing rooms, safety packaging, age restrictions, and labeling.[24]

There are no current governmental or US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid. The FDA has sought to regulate e-liquid through use of the Tobacco Control Act, passed into law in 2009. In April 2014, the FDA issued its "Deeming" proposals for public comment, which would cover e-liquids manufacturing. The Final Rule, (in final form) giving the FDA authority to regulate e-liquids was released on May 5th 2016.[63]

Electronic E Cigarette

Construction of electronic cigarettes

 UK   (Redirected from E-liquid) Aerosol (vapor) exhaled by an e-cigarette user.

The aerosol of electronic cigarettes is generated when the e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100–250 °C within a chamber.[1] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[2] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[3] In physics, a vapor is a substance in the gas phase whereas an aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid or both within a gas.[2] Vapor from an electronic cigarette simulates tobacco smoke, but the process of burning tobacco does not occur.[3] The aerosol is made-up of liquid sub-micron particles of condensed vapor,[4] which mostly consist of propylene glycol, glycerol, water, flavorings, nicotine, and other chemicals.[5] The various chemicals in the aerosol give rise to many issues concerning the safety of electronic cigarettes that have been much discussed.[2][5][6] After a puff, inhalation of the aerosol travels from the device into the mouth and lungs.[2] A 2014 review found that the particles emitted by e-cigarettes are comparable in size and number to particles in cigarette smoke, with the majority of them in the ultrafine range. The particles are of the ultrafine size which can go deep in the lungs and then into the systemic circulation. A 2014 review said local pulmonary toxicity may occur because metal nanoparticles can deposit in the lungs.[6] Others show that the quantities of metals emitted are minimal and permissible by medicinal standards.[5][7][8]

Various bottles of e-liquid.

After the aerosol is inhaled, it is exhaled.[2] Emissions from electronic cigarettes are not comparable to environmental pollution or cigarette smoke as their nature and chemical composition are completely different.[5] The particles are larger, with the mean size being 600 nm in inhaled aerosol and 300 nm in exhaled vapor.[9] Bystanders are exposed to these particles from exhaled e-cigarette vapor.[6] There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor exhaled by e-cigarette users can be inhaled by bystanders, particularly indoors, and have significant adverse effects.[10][11][12] Since e-cigarettes involve an aerosolization process, it is suggested that no meaningful amounts of carbon monoxide are emitted.[13] Thus, cardiocirculatory effects caused by carbon monoxide are not likely.[13] E-cigarette use by an expectant parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring.[14] E-cigarettes pose many safety concerns to children.[14] For example, indoor surfaces can accumulate nicotine where e-cigarettes were used, which may be inhaled by children, particularly youngsters, long after they were used.[14]

E-liquid is the mixture used in vapor products such as electronic cigarettes.[15] The main ingredients in the e-liquid usually are propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings.[16] However, there are e-liquids sold without propylene glycol, nicotine, or flavors.[15][17][18] The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin.[19] Propylene glycol and glycerine are used to produce the vapor while the flavoring provides the taste and aroma.[20] The flavorings may be natural or artificial.[9] About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014.[21] There are many e-liquids manufacturers in the USA and worldwide.[22] While there are currently no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid, the FDA has proposed regulations that were expected to be finalized in late 2015.[23] Industry standards have been created and published by the American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA).[24]

The vapor can contain nicotine and usually contains vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, flavors and aroma transporters.[8] The nicotine levels in the vapor varies either from puff-to-puff or among products of the same company.[2] A 2015 report commissioned by Public Health England concluded that e-cigarettes "release negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air".[25] E-cigarettes without nicotine are also available.[26] The vapor may also contain tiny amounts of toxicants, carcinogens, and heavy metals.[6][8] Contamination with various chemicals has been identified.[9] E-cigarette makers do not fully disclose information on the chemicals that can be released or synthesized during use.[2] The metals have been found in trace amounts in the vapor, some of them at higher amounts than in cigarette smoke.[5] The peak concentration of nicotine delivered by e-cigarette use is comparable to that produced by conventional cigarette smoking.[27]

An example of a commercial e-liquid and an advanced personal vaporizer.

E-liquid,[28] e-fluid, or e-juice[29] is the mixture used in vapor products including e-cigarettes.[15] E-Liquids come in many variations, including different nicotine strengths and many different flavors.[30] The main ingredients are propylene glycol, glycerine, and flavorings; and most often, nicotine in liquid form.[16] The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin, and the remaining 5% being flavorings and nicotine.[19] E-liquid can be made with or without nicotine, with >90% of e-liquids containing some level of nicotine.[31] The most regularly used base carrier chemical is propylene glycol with or without glycerin.[6] E-liquid containing glycerin and water made without propylene glycol are also sold.[15] Unless clearly stated, it is uncertain whether the nicotine used in e-liquid is manufactured using a United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade nicotine, a tobacco plant extract, tobacco dust or a synthetic nicotine.[32] Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers.[26] Although some e-juice is nicotine-free, surveys demonstrate that 97% of responders use products that contain nicotine.[17] A 2015 review suggests that 1% of users use liquid without nicotine.[33]

The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[34] An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[35] When the user pushes a button.[36] or inhales a pressure sensor activates the heating element that atomizes the liquid solution;[37] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100–250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[1] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[2] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[3] However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature where the user adjusts the vapor.[9] The vapor contains similar chemicals to the e-liquid which vary in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers.[2]

E-cigarettes produce particles, in the form of an aerosol.[2][38] In physics, a vapor is a substance in the gas phase whereas an aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid or both within a gas.[2] The aerosol is made-up of liquid sub-micron particles of condensed vapor,[38] which mostly consist of propylene glycol, glycerol, water, flavorings, nicotine, and other chemicals.[5] This aerosol that is produces resembles cigarette smoke.[2] After a puff, inhalation of the aerosol travels from the device into the mouth and lungs.[2]

A 2014 review found that the particles emitted by e-cigarettes are comparable in size and number to particles in cigarette smoke, with the majority of them in the ultrafine range. The ultrafine particles can go deep in the lungs and then into the systemic circulation. Pulmonary toxicity may occur because metal nanoparticles can deposit in the lungs.[6] The review also found that fine particles can be chemically intricate and not uniform, and what a particle is made of, the exact harmful elements, and the importance of the size of the particle is mostly unknown. They found that because these things are uncertain, it is not clear whether the ultrafine particles in e-cigarette vapor have health effects similar to those produced by traditional cigarettes.[6]

A 2014 WHO report found e-cigarettes release a lower level of particles than traditional cigarettes.[39] Comparable to a traditional cigarette, e-cigarette particles are tiny enough to enter the alveoli, enabling nicotine absorption.[29] E-cigarettes companies assert that the particulates produced by an e-cigarette are too tiny to be deposited in the alveoli.[40] Exactly what comprises the vapor varies in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers.[2] Different devices generate different particle sizes and cause different depositions in the respiratory tract, even from the same nicotine liquid.[41] Reports in the literature have shown respiratory and cardiovascular effects by these smaller size particles, suggesting a possible health concern.[42]

After the aerosol is inhaled, it is exhaled.[2] Emissions from electronic cigarettes are not comparable to environmental pollution or cigarette smoke as their nature and chemical composition are completely different.[5] The particles are larger, with the mean size being 600 nm in inhaled aerosol and 300 nm in exhaled vapor.[9] The exhaled aerosol particle concentration is 5 times lower from an e-cigarette than from a combustible tobacco cigarette.[43] The density of particles in the vapor is lower than in cigarette smoke by a factor of between 6 and 880 times lower.[5]

For particulate matter emissions, e-cigarettes slightly exceeded the WHO guidelines, but emissions were 15 times less than traditional cigarette use.[44] In January 2014, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease stated "Adverse health effects for exposed third parties (second-hand exposure) cannot be excluded because the use of electronic cigarettes leads to emission of fine and ultrafine inhalable liquid particles, nicotine and cancer-causing substances into indoor air."[45] The dense vapor consists of liquid sub-micron droplets.[38][dead link]

Since e-cigarettes have not been widely used long enough for evaluation, the long-term health effects from the second-hand vapor are not known.[6] There is insufficient data to determine the impact on public health from e-cigarettes.[46] The potential harm to bystanders from e-cigarettes is unknown.[47] This is because no long-term data is available.[8]

Since e-cigarettes do not burn (or contain) tobacco, no side-stream smoke or any cigarette smoke is produced.[6] Only what is exhaled by e-cigarettes users enters the surrounding air.[8] Exhaled vapor consists of nicotine and some other particles, primarily consisting of flavors, aroma transporters, glycerin and propylene glycol.[8] Bystanders are exposed to these particles from exhaled e-cigarette vapor.[6] A mixture of harmful substances, particularly nicotine, ultrafine particles, and volatile organic compounds can be exhaled into the air.[48] The liquid particles condenses into a viewable fog.[9] The vapor is in the air for a short time, with a half-life of about 10 seconds; traditional cigarette smoke is in the air 100 times longer.[9] This is because of fast revaporization at room temperature.[9]

There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor exhaled by e-cigarette users can be inhaled by bystanders, particularly indoors, and have significant adverse effects.[10][12] Since e-cigarettes involve an aerosolization process, it is suggested that no meaningful amounts of carbon monoxide are emitted.[13] Thus, cardiocirculatory effects caused by carbon monoxide are not likely.[13] However, in an experimental study, e-cigarettes increased levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surrounding air.[13]

E-cigarettes used in indoor environments can put at risk nonsmokers to elevated levels of nicotine and aerosol emissions.[43] Nonsmokers exposed to e-cigarette aerosol produced by a machine and pumped into a room were found to have detectable levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in their blood. The same study stated that 80% of nicotine is normally absorbed by the user, so these results may be higher than in actual second hand exposure.[6] In 2015 a report commissioned by Public Health England concluded that e-cigarettes "release negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air with no identified health risks to bystanders".[25]

A 2014 review of limited data concluded this vapor can cause indoor air pollution and is not just water vapor as is frequently stated in the advertising of e-cigarettes.[6] A 2014 practice guideline by NPS MedicineWise states, "Although data on health effects of passive vapour are currently lacking, the risks are argued to be small, but claims that e-cigarettes emit only water vapour are nevertheless incorrect. Serum cotinine levels (a metabolite of nicotine) have been found to be similar in bystanders exposed to either e-cigarette vapour or cigarette smoke."[49][50] The 2015 California Department of Public Health has reported that "Mainstream and second hand e-cigarette aerosol has been found to contain at least ten chemicals that are on California's Proposition 65 list of chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm."[51] However, it has been demonstrated that e-cigarettes causes nonusers to be exposed to nicotine but not to tobacco-related combustion toxicants.[10]

A no smoking or vaping sign from the US.

A white paper published in 2014 by the American Industrial Hygiene Association concluded e-cigarettes emit airborne contaminants that may be inhaled by the user and those nearby.[42] They urged indoors restrictions similar to smoking bans, until research has shown the aerosol has no risk of harm.[42] A 2014 review indicated that the levels of inhaled contaminants from the e-cigarette vapor are not of significant health concern for human exposures by the standards used in workplaces to ensure safety.[26] The use of e-cigarettes in a smoke-free area could expose non-users to toxins.[52] The effect on bystanders would likely be much less harmful than traditional cigarettes.[8]

2014 WHO report stated passive exposure was as a concern, indicating that current evidence is insufficient to determine whether the levels of exhaled vapor are safe to involuntarily exposed bystanders.[39] The report stated that "it is unknown if the increased exposure to toxicants and particles in exhaled aerosol will lead to an increased risk of disease and death among bystanders."[39] The British Medical Association (BMA) reported in 2013 that there are "concerns that the use of e-cigarettes could threaten the norm of not smoking in public places and workplaces."[53]

As of 2013[update], the only clinical study currently published evaluating the respiratory effects of passive vaping found no adverse effects were detected.[5] A 2014 review found it is safe to infer that their effects on bystanders are minimal in comparison to traditional cigarettes.[5] A E-cigarette vapor has notably fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke and is likely to pose less harm to users or bystanders.[6]

E-cigarette use by a parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring.[14] E-cigarettes pose many safety concerns to children.[14] For example, indoor surfaces can accumulate nicotine where e-cigarettes were used, which may be inhaled by children, particularly youngsters, long after they were used.[14] A policy statement by the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology has reported that "Third-hand exposure occurs when nicotine and other chemicals from second-hand aerosol deposit on surfaces, exposing people through touch, ingestion, and inhalation".[17] Public health England, looking at the available research said the amount of nicotine deposited was low and that an infant would have to lick 30 square meters to be exposed to 1 mg of nicotine.[25] The statement noted there are no published studies of third hand exposure from e-cigarettes, however initial data suggests that nicotine from e-cigarettes may stick to surfaces and would be hard to remove.[17]

The e-liquid is sold in bottles or pre-filled disposable cartridges, or as a kit for consumers to make their own e-juices.[54] Some vendors of e-liquids, offer options to change the amounts of flavorings or nicotine strengths, and build each bottle customized for the purchaser.[54] E-liquids are made with various tobacco, fruit, and other flavors,[6] as well as variable nicotine concentrations (including nicotine-free versions).[16] The standard notation "mg/ml" is often used on labels to denote nicotine concentration, and is sometimes shortened to "mg".[55] In surveys of regular e-cigarette users, the most popular e-liquids have a nicotine content of 18 mg/ml, and the preferred flavors were largely tobacco, mint and fruit.[8] A cartridge may contain 0 to 20 mg of nicotine.[48] EU regulations cap the concentration of nicotine in e-liquid at a maximum of 20 mg/mL.[29] A refill bottle can contain up to 1 g of nicotine.[48] Refill liquids are often sold in the size range from 15 to 30 mL.[56] One cartridge may typically last as long as one pack of cigarettes.[57] Some liquids without flavoring is also sold.[18] The flavorings may be natural or artificial.[9] There is even certified organic liquid.[58] About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014.[21] A user does not normally consume a whole cartridge in a single session.[59] Most e-liquids are produced by a few manufacturers in China, the US and Europe.[8] An e-cigarette user will usually obtain 300 to 500 puffs per mL of liquid.[56]

The two most common e-liquid bases are propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG).[60] Propylene glycol is tasteless and odorless, and therefore it doesn't affect the flavor of the e-liquid. It is known, however, to cause allergic reactions in some users, and in such case it is advised to stop the use immediately. Vegetable glycerin, on the other hand, is a lot thicker in consistency, and it doesn't cause allergic reactions. It also produces significantly more vapor, which has a slight sweet taste.[61][unreliable source?]

E-liquids are manufactured by many producers, both in the US and across the world.[22] First tier manufacturers use lab suits, gloves, hair covers, inside of certified clean rooms with air filtration similar to pharmaceutical-grade production areas.[22]

Standards for e-liquid manufacturing have been created by American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA), which is trade association dedicated to creating responsible and sustainable standards for the safe manufacturing of e-liquids used in vapor products.[62] AEMSA has published a comprehensive list standards and best known methods, which are openly available for use by any manufacturer of e-Liquids. The AEMSA standards cover nicotine, ingredients, sanitary manufacturing rooms, safety packaging, age restrictions, and labeling.[24]

There are no current governmental or US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid. The FDA has sought to regulate e-liquid through use of the Tobacco Control Act, passed into law in 2009. In April 2014, the FDA issued its "Deeming" proposals for public comment, which would cover e-liquids manufacturing. The Final Rule, (in final form) giving the FDA authority to regulate e-liquids was released on May 5th 2016.[63]


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK

E Cigarette Uk Liquid UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

Smoking Vapor Electronic Cigarette

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

The entering into force of the requirements of the European tobacco products directive in Estonia made e-cigarette seller Nicorex Baltic destroy 19,000 bottles of e-cigarette liquid worth €135 000, as the packaging size did not meet the new requirements.

The liquids were actually in order, had undergone laboratory testing and met the new requirements, but their packaging did not have the necessary warnings on them and the boxes did not contain instructions.

Nicorex said that the transition period allowed by the government was too short, as the shelf life of the liquids was two years, but the length of the transition period only one year.

At the same time, Nicorex welcomed the requirement that the liquids have to undergo laboratory testing and that both the equipment and liquids must be registered in a single European database.

Nicorex described the restrictions concerning the size of packaging as unreasonable, as they increased the ecological footprint.

The transition period under the new tobacco law arising from the European tobacco products directive will end on May 20, after which the stricter requirements will apply to e-cigarettes in full.

Liquids can't be sold in containers bigger than 10 ml, they can't contain more nicotine than 20 milligrams per milliliter, and the vaporizer can't be bigger than 2 ml.

The packaging needs to include a leaflet, instructions, a batch number, a date, and a warning that nicotine is an addictive substance.

Electronic Cigarette Price

2017 Beyond the Data -- E-cigarettes: An Emerging Public Health Challenge

 UK

The entering into force of the requirements of the European tobacco products directive in Estonia made e-cigarette seller Nicorex Baltic destroy 19,000 bottles of e-cigarette liquid worth €135 000, as the packaging size did not meet the new requirements.

The liquids were actually in order, had undergone laboratory testing and met the new requirements, but their packaging did not have the necessary warnings on them and the boxes did not contain instructions.

Nicorex said that the transition period allowed by the government was too short, as the shelf life of the liquids was two years, but the length of the transition period only one year.

At the same time, Nicorex welcomed the requirement that the liquids have to undergo laboratory testing and that both the equipment and liquids must be registered in a single European database.

Nicorex described the restrictions concerning the size of packaging as unreasonable, as they increased the ecological footprint.

The transition period under the new tobacco law arising from the European tobacco products directive will end on May 20, after which the stricter requirements will apply to e-cigarettes in full.

Liquids can't be sold in containers bigger than 10 ml, they can't contain more nicotine than 20 milligrams per milliliter, and the vaporizer can't be bigger than 2 ml.

The packaging needs to include a leaflet, instructions, a batch number, a date, and a warning that nicotine is an addictive substance.


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK

Uk Vapour Store UK

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

E Juice For Electronic Cigarette

UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid

Disassembled parts of a first generation e-cigarette. A. LED light cover B. battery (also houses circuitry) C. atomizer (heating element) D. cartridge (mouthpiece) Parts of a second generation e-cigarette. An electronic cigarette is a battery-powered vaporizer.[1] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] When the user pushes a button,[4] or (in some variations) activates a pressure sensor by inhaling, the heating element then atomizes the liquid solution[5] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[7] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[1] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] First generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[11] Second generation devices are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] Third generation devices include mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[10] The fourth generation includes Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[15] A later-generation box mod e-cigarette. Image courtesy of Ecigclick An e-cigarette is a handheld battery-powered vaporizer that simulates smoking, but without tobacco combustion.[1] Once the user inhales, the airflow activates the pressure sensor, and then the heating element atomizes the liquid solution.[5] Most devices have a manual push-button switch to turn them on or off.[16] E-cigarettes do not turn on by trying to "light" the device with a flame.[4] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature.[17] A glycerin-only liquid vaporizes at a higher temperature than a propylene glycol-glycerin liquid.[17] Rather than cigarette smoke, the user inhales an aerosol, commonly but inaccurately called vapor.[7] E-cigarettes do not create vapor between puffs.[18] Vaping is different than tobacco smoking, but there are some similarities with their behavioral habits, including the hand-to-mouth action and a vapor that looks like cigarette smoke.[1] E-cigarettes provide a flavor and feel similar to smoking.[1] A noticeable difference between the traditional cigarette and the e-cigarette is sense of touch.[1] A traditional cigarette is smooth and light but an e-cigarette is rigid, cold and slightly heavier.[1] Since e-cigarettes are more complex than traditional cigarettes, a learning curve is needed to use them correctly.[19] Compared to traditional cigarettes, the general e-cigarette puff time is much longer, and requires a more forceful suction than a regular cigarette.[20] The volume of vapor created by e-cigarette devices in 2012 declined with vaping.[1] Thus, to create the same volume of vapor increasing puff force is needed.[1] Later-generation e-cigarettes with concentrated nicotine liquids may deliver nicotine at levels similar to traditional cigarettes.[21] Many e-cigarette versions include a voltage potentiometer to adjust the volume of vapor created.[4] The amount of vapor produced is controlled by the power from the battery, which has led some users to adjust their devices to increase battery power.[6] An ordinary cigarette compared to a "cigalike" e-cigarette E-cigarettes are usually approximately cylindrical, with many variations: pen-styles, tank-styles etc.[22] Some e-cigarettes look like traditional cigarettes, but others do not.[19] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] The only exception to this are mechanical e-cigarettes (mods) which contain no electronics and the circuit is closed by using a mechanical action switch.[23] E-cigarettes are sold in disposable or reusable variants.[8] Disposable e-cigarettes are discarded once the liquid in the cartridge is used up, while rechargeable e-cigarettes may be used indefinitely.[24] A disposable e-cigarette lasts to around 400 puffs.[25] Reusable e-cigarettes are refilled by hand or exchanged for pre-filled cartridges, and general cleaning is required.[4] A wide range of disposable and reusable e-cigarettes exist.[26] Disposable e-cigarettes are offered for a few dollars, and higher-priced reusable e-cigarettes involve an up-front investment for a starter kit.[19] Some e-cigarettes have a LED at the tip to resemble the glow of burning tobacco.[21] The LED may also indicate the battery status.[1] The LED is not generally used in personal vaporizers or mods.[2] First-generation e-cigarettes usually simulated smoking implements, such as cigarettes or cigars, in their use and appearance.[10] Later-generation e-cigarettes often called mods, PVs (personal vaporizer) or APVs (advanced personal vaporizer) have an increased nicotine-dispersal performance,[10] house higher capacity batteries, and come in various shapes such as metal tubes and boxes.[27] They contain silver, steel, metals, ceramics, plastics, fibers, aluminum, rubber and spume, and lithium batteries.[28] A growing subclass of vapers called cloud-chasers configure their atomizers to produce large amounts of vapor by using low-resistance heating coils.[29] This practice is known as cloud-chasing.[30] Many e-cigarettes are made of standardized replaceable parts that are interchangeable between brands.[31] A wide array of component combinations exists.[32] Many e-cigarettes are sold with a USB charger.[33] E-cigarettes that resemble pens or USB memory sticks are also sold for those who may want to use the device unobtrusively.[34] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] Various types of e-cigarettes. First-generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] The three parts of a cigalike e-cigarette initially were a cartridge, an atomizer, and a battery.[35] A cigalike e-cigarette currently contains a cartomizer (cartridge atomizer), which is connected to a battery.[35] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[35] They may be a single unit comprising a battery, coil and filling saturated with e-juice in a single tube to be used and discarded after the battery or e-liquid is depleted.[10] They may also be a reusable device with a battery and cartridge called a cartomizer.[12] The cartomizer cartridge can be separated from the battery so the battery can be charged and the empty cartomizer replaced when the e-juice runs out.[10] The battery section may contain an electronic airflow sensor triggered by drawing breath through the device.[12] Other models use a power button that must be held during operation.[12] An LED in the power button or on the end of the device may also show when the device is vaporizing.[36] Charging is commonly accomplished with a USB charger that attaches to the battery.[37] Some manufacturers also have a cigarette pack-shaped portable charging case (PCC), which contains a larger battery capable of recharging the individual e-cigarette batteries.[38] Reusable devices can come in a kit that contains a battery, a charger, and at least one cartridge.[38] Varying nicotine concentrations are available and nicotine delivery to the user also varies based on different cartomizers, e-juice mixtures, and power supplied by the battery.[22] These manufacturing differences affect the way e-cigarettes convert the liquid solution to an aerosol, and thus the levels of ingredients, that are delivered to the user and the surrounding air for any given liquid.[22] First-generation e-cigarettes use lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] Second-generation PV. Second generation devices tend to be used by people with more experience.[12] They are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] They usually consist of two sections, basically a tank and a separate battery. Their batteries have higher capacity, and are not removable.[10] Being rechargeable, they use a USB charger that attaches to the battery with a threaded connector. Some batteries have a "passthrough" feature so they can be used even while they are charging.[40][41] Second-generation e-cigarettes commonly use a tank or a "clearomizer".[12] Clearomizer tanks are meant to be refilled with e-juice, while cartomizers are not.[10] Because they're refillable and the battery is rechargeable, their cost of operation is lower.[10] Hovever, they can also use cartomizers, which are pre-filled only.[10] Some cheaper battery sections use a microphone that detects the turbulence of the air passing through to activate the device when the user inhales.[42] Other batteries like the eGo style can use an integrated circuit, as well as a button for manual activation. The LED shows battery status.[42] The power button can also switch off the battery so it is not activated accidentally.[43] Second generation e-cigarettes may have lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] However, adjustable-voltage devices can be set between 3 V and 6 V.[44] Third-generation PV. The third-generation includes mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[45][46] Battery sections are commonly called "mods," referencing their past when user modification was common.[10] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] They are commonly cylindrical or box-shaped, and typical housing materials are wood, aluminium, stainless steel, or brass.[47] A larger "box mod" can hold bigger and sometimes multiple batteries.[47] Mechanical mods and variable devices use larger batteries than those found in previous generations.[48] Common battery sizes used are 18350, 18490, 18500 and 18650.[49] The battery is often removable,[46] so it can be changed when depleted. The battery must be removed and charged externally.[46] Variable devices permit setting wattage, voltage, or both.[40][46] These often have a USB connector for recharging; some can be used while charging, called a "passthrough" feature.[40][50] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] The power section may include additional options such as screen readout, support for a wide range of internal batteries, and compatibility with different types of atomizers.[12] Third-generation devices can have rebuildable atomizers with different wicking materials.[10][12] These rebuildables use handmade coils that can be installed in the atomizer to increase vapor production.[48] Hardware in this generation is sometimes modified to increase power or flavor.[51] The larger battery sections used also allow larger tanks to be attached that can hold more e-liquid.[47] Recent devices can go up to 8 V, which can heat the e-liquid significantly more than earlier generations.[39] A fourth-generation e-cigarette became available in the U.S. in 2014.[21] Fourth-generation e-cigarettes can be made from stainless steel and pyrex glass, and contain very little plastics.[13] Included in the fourth-generation are Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] An e-cigarette atomizer with the coil (heating element) in view. An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and a wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] Along with a battery and e-liquid the atomizer is the main component of every personal vaporizer.[12] A small length of resistance wire is coiled around the wicking material and connected to the integrated circuit, or in the case of mechanical devices, the atomizer is connected directly to the battery through either a 510, 808, or ego threaded connector.[52] 510 being the most common.[52] When activated, the resistance wire coil heats up and vaporizes the liquid, which is then inhaled by the user.[53] The electrical resistance of the coil, the voltage output of the device, the airflow of the atomizer and the efficiency of the wick all affect the vapor coming from the atomizer.[54] They also affect the vapor quantity or volume yielded.[54] Atomizer coils made of kanthal usually have resistances that vary from 0.4Ω (ohms) to 2.8Ω.[54] Coils of lower ohms have increased vapor production but could risk fire and dangerous battery failures if the user is not knowledgeable enough about electrical principles and how they relate to battery safety.[55] Wicking materials vary from one atomizer to another.[56] "Rebuildable" or "do it yourself" atomizers can use silica, cotton, rayon, porous ceramic, hemp, bamboo yarn, oxidized stainless steel mesh and even wire rope cables as wicking materials.[56] A 45mm length, extra-long cartomizer. The cartomizer was invented in 2007, integrating the heating coil into the liquid chamber.[57] A "cartomizer" (a portmanteau of cartridge and atomizer.[58]) or "carto" consists of an atomizer surrounded by a liquid-soaked poly-foam that acts as an e-liquid holder.[3] They can have up to 3 coils and each coil will increase vapor production.[3] The cartomizer is usually discarded when the e-liquid starts to taste burnt, which usually happens when the e-cigarette is activated with a dry coil or when the cartomizer gets consistently flooded (gurgling) because of sedimentation of the wick.[3] Most cartomizers are refillable even if not advertised as such.[3][59] Cartomizers can be used on their own or in conjunction with a tank that allows more e-liquid capacity.[3] The portmanteau word "cartotank" has been coined for this.[60] When used in a tank, the cartomizer is inserted in a plastic, glass or metal tube and holes or slots have to be punched on the sides of the cartomizer so liquid can reach the coil.[3] eGo style e-cigarette with a top-coil clearomizer. Silica fibers are hanging down freely inside of the tank, drawing e-liquid by capillary action to the coil that is located directly under the mouthpiece. The clearomizer was invented in 2009 that originated from the cartomizer design.[57] It contained the wicking material, an e-liquid chamber, and an atomizer coil within a single clear component.[57] This allows the user to monitor the liquid level in the device.[57] Clearomizers or "clearos", are like cartotanks, in that an atomizer is inserted into the tank.[61] There are different wicking systems used inside clearomizers.[3] Some rely on gravity to bring the e-liquid to the wick and coil assembly (bottom coil clearomizers for example) and others rely on capillary action or to some degree the user agitating the e-liquid while handling the clearomizer (top coil clearomizers).[3][62] The coil and wicks are typically inside a prefabricated assembly or "head" that is replaceable by the user.[63] Clearomizers are made with adjustable air flow control.[64] Tanks can be plastic or borosilicate glass.[65] Some flavors of e-juice have been known to damage plastic clearomizer tanks.[65] Box mod e-cigarette fitted with a rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA). A view of the RDA deck showing the wicks and coils, juice is dripped into a hopper where the wicks rest as well as atop the coil assembly. A rebuildable atomizer or an RBA is an atomizer that allows the user to assemble or "build" the wick and coil themselves instead of replacing them with off-the-shelf atomizer "heads".[10] They are generally considered advanced devices.[66] They also allow the user to build atomizers at any desired electrical resistance.[10] These atomizers are divided into two main categories; rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) and rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs).[67] Rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) have a tank to hold liquid that is absorbed by the wick.[68] They can hold up to 4ml of e-liquid.[69] The tank can be either plastic, glass, or metal.[65] One form of tank atomizers was the Genesis style atomizers.[68] They can use ceramic wicks, stainless steel mesh or rope for wicking material.[68] The steel wick must be oxidized to prevent arcing of the coil.[68] Another type is the Sub ohm tank.[69] These tanks have rebuildabe or RBA kits.[69] They can also use coilheads of 0.2ohm 0.4hom and 0.5ohm.[69] These coilheads can have stainless steel coils.[70] Rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs) are atomizers where the e-juice is dripped directly onto the coil and wick.[71] The common nicotine strength of e-liquids used in RDA's is 3 mg and 6 mg.[71] Liquids used in RDA's tend to have more vegetable glycerin.[71] They typically consist only of an atomizer "building deck", commonly with three posts with holes drilled in them, which can accept one or more coils.[51] The user needs to manually keep the atomizer wet by dripping liquid on the bare wick and coil assembly, hence their name.[71] Kanthal wire is commonly used in both RDA's and RTA's.[71] They can also use nickel wire or titanium wire for temperature control.[71] Variable devices are variable wattage, variable voltage or both.[40][46] Variable power and/or variable voltage have a electronic chip allowing the user to adjust the power applied to the heating element.[12][46] The amount of power applied to the coil affects the heat produced, thus changing the vapor output.[12][32] Greater heat from the coil increases vapor production.[32] Variable power devices monitor the coil's resistance and automatically adjust the voltage to apply the user-specified level of power to the coil.[72] Recent devices can go up to 8 V.[39] They are often rectangular but can also be cylindrical.[47] They usually have a screen to show information such as voltage, power, and resistance of the coil.[73] To adjust the settings, the user presses buttons or rotates a dial to turn the power up or down.[32] Some of these devices include additional settings through their menu system such as: atomizer resistance meter, remaining battery voltage, puff counter, and power-off or lock.[74] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[4] Smaller devices contain smaller batteries and are easier to carry but typically require more repeated recharging.[4] Some e-cigarettes use a long lasting rechargeable battery, a non-rechargeable battery or a replaceable battery that is either rechargeable or non-rechargeable for power.[26] Some companies offer portable chargeable cases to recharge e-cigarettes.[26] Nickel-cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal-hydride (NiMh), lithium ion (Li-ion), alkaline and lithium polymer (Li-poly), and lithium manganese (LiMn) batteries have been used for the e-cigarettes power source.[26] PV with variable and regulated power offering battery protection. Temperature control devices allow the user to set the temperature.[71] There is a predictable change to the resistance of a coil when it is heated.[75] The resistance changes are different for different types of wires, and must have a high temperature coefficient of resistance.[75] Temperature control is done by detecting that resistance change to estimate the temperature and adjusting the voltage to the coil to match that estimate.[76] Nickel, titanium, NiFe alloys, and certain grades of stainless steel are common materials used for wire in temperature control.[71] The most common wire used, kanthal, cannot be used because it has a stable resistance regardless of the coil temperature.[75] Nickel was the first wire used because of it has the highest coefficient of the common metals.[75] Mechanical PV with a rebuildable atomizer. The temperature can be adjusted in Celsius or Fahrenheit.[77] The DNA40 and SX350J are common control boards used in temperature control devices.[78] Temperature control can stop dry wicks from burning, or e-liquid overheating.[78] Mechanical PVs or mechanical "mods", often called "mechs", are devices without integrated circuits, electronic battery protection, or voltage regulation.[46] They are activated by a switch.[71] They rely on the natural voltage output of the battery and the metal that the mod is made of often is used as part of the circuit itself.[79] The term "mod" was originally used instead of "modification".[10] Users would modify existing hardware to get better performance, and as an alternative to the e-cigarettes that looked like traditional cigarettes.[32] Users would also modify other unrelated items like flashlights as battery compartments to power atomizers.[32][47] The word mod is often used to describe most personal vaporizers.[3] Mechanical PVs have no power regulation and are unprotected.[71] Because of this ensuring that the battery does not over-discharge and that the resistance of the atomizer requires amperage within the safety limits of the battery is the responsibility of the user.[79]

Quit Smoking Electronic Cigarette

E-cigarette seller destroys €135,000 worth of nicotine liquid - Nicorex! NB - OPEN SUBTITLES!

 UK Disassembled parts of a first generation e-cigarette.
A. LED light cover
B. battery (also houses circuitry)
C. atomizer (heating element)
D. cartridge (mouthpiece) Parts of a second generation e-cigarette.

An electronic cigarette is a battery-powered vaporizer.[1] The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] When the user pushes a button,[4] or (in some variations) activates a pressure sensor by inhaling, the heating element then atomizes the liquid solution[5] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke.[7] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[1]

There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8] As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9] First generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[11] Second generation devices are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] Third generation devices include mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[10] The fourth generation includes Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[15]

A later-generation box mod e-cigarette. Image courtesy of Ecigclick

An e-cigarette is a handheld battery-powered vaporizer that simulates smoking, but without tobacco combustion.[1] Once the user inhales, the airflow activates the pressure sensor, and then the heating element atomizes the liquid solution.[5] Most devices have a manual push-button switch to turn them on or off.[16] E-cigarettes do not turn on by trying to "light" the device with a flame.[4] The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100-250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor.[6] However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature.[17] A glycerin-only liquid vaporizes at a higher temperature than a propylene glycol-glycerin liquid.[17] Rather than cigarette smoke, the user inhales an aerosol, commonly but inaccurately called vapor.[7] E-cigarettes do not create vapor between puffs.[18]

Vaping is different than tobacco smoking, but there are some similarities with their behavioral habits, including the hand-to-mouth action and a vapor that looks like cigarette smoke.[1] E-cigarettes provide a flavor and feel similar to smoking.[1] A noticeable difference between the traditional cigarette and the e-cigarette is sense of touch.[1] A traditional cigarette is smooth and light but an e-cigarette is rigid, cold and slightly heavier.[1] Since e-cigarettes are more complex than traditional cigarettes, a learning curve is needed to use them correctly.[19]

Compared to traditional cigarettes, the general e-cigarette puff time is much longer, and requires a more forceful suction than a regular cigarette.[20] The volume of vapor created by e-cigarette devices in 2012 declined with vaping.[1] Thus, to create the same volume of vapor increasing puff force is needed.[1] Later-generation e-cigarettes with concentrated nicotine liquids may deliver nicotine at levels similar to traditional cigarettes.[21] Many e-cigarette versions include a voltage potentiometer to adjust the volume of vapor created.[4] The amount of vapor produced is controlled by the power from the battery, which has led some users to adjust their devices to increase battery power.[6]

An ordinary cigarette compared to a "cigalike" e-cigarette

E-cigarettes are usually approximately cylindrical, with many variations: pen-styles, tank-styles etc.[22] Some e-cigarettes look like traditional cigarettes, but others do not.[19] There are three main types of e-cigarettes: cigalikes, looking like cigarettes; eGos, bigger than cigalikes with refillable liquid tanks; and mods, assembled from basic parts or by altering existing products.[8]

The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.[2] The only exception to this are mechanical e-cigarettes (mods) which contain no electronics and the circuit is closed by using a mechanical action switch.[23] E-cigarettes are sold in disposable or reusable variants.[8] Disposable e-cigarettes are discarded once the liquid in the cartridge is used up, while rechargeable e-cigarettes may be used indefinitely.[24] A disposable e-cigarette lasts to around 400 puffs.[25] Reusable e-cigarettes are refilled by hand or exchanged for pre-filled cartridges, and general cleaning is required.[4] A wide range of disposable and reusable e-cigarettes exist.[26] Disposable e-cigarettes are offered for a few dollars, and higher-priced reusable e-cigarettes involve an up-front investment for a starter kit.[19] Some e-cigarettes have a LED at the tip to resemble the glow of burning tobacco.[21] The LED may also indicate the battery status.[1] The LED is not generally used in personal vaporizers or mods.[2]

First-generation e-cigarettes usually simulated smoking implements, such as cigarettes or cigars, in their use and appearance.[10] Later-generation e-cigarettes often called mods, PVs (personal vaporizer) or APVs (advanced personal vaporizer) have an increased nicotine-dispersal performance,[10] house higher capacity batteries, and come in various shapes such as metal tubes and boxes.[27] They contain silver, steel, metals, ceramics, plastics, fibers, aluminum, rubber and spume, and lithium batteries.[28] A growing subclass of vapers called cloud-chasers configure their atomizers to produce large amounts of vapor by using low-resistance heating coils.[29] This practice is known as cloud-chasing.[30] Many e-cigarettes are made of standardized replaceable parts that are interchangeable between brands.[31] A wide array of component combinations exists.[32] Many e-cigarettes are sold with a USB charger.[33] E-cigarettes that resemble pens or USB memory sticks are also sold for those who may want to use the device unobtrusively.[34]

As the e-cigarette industry continues to evolve, new products are quickly developed and brought to market.[9]

Various types of e-cigarettes.

First-generation e-cigarettes tend to look like tobacco cigarettes and so are called "cigalikes".[10] The three parts of a cigalike e-cigarette initially were a cartridge, an atomizer, and a battery.[35] A cigalike e-cigarette currently contains a cartomizer (cartridge atomizer), which is connected to a battery.[35] Most cigalikes look like cigarettes but there is some variation in size.[35]

They may be a single unit comprising a battery, coil and filling saturated with e-juice in a single tube to be used and discarded after the battery or e-liquid is depleted.[10] They may also be a reusable device with a battery and cartridge called a cartomizer.[12] The cartomizer cartridge can be separated from the battery so the battery can be charged and the empty cartomizer replaced when the e-juice runs out.[10]

The battery section may contain an electronic airflow sensor triggered by drawing breath through the device.[12] Other models use a power button that must be held during operation.[12] An LED in the power button or on the end of the device may also show when the device is vaporizing.[36]

Charging is commonly accomplished with a USB charger that attaches to the battery.[37] Some manufacturers also have a cigarette pack-shaped portable charging case (PCC), which contains a larger battery capable of recharging the individual e-cigarette batteries.[38] Reusable devices can come in a kit that contains a battery, a charger, and at least one cartridge.[38] Varying nicotine concentrations are available and nicotine delivery to the user also varies based on different cartomizers, e-juice mixtures, and power supplied by the battery.[22]

These manufacturing differences affect the way e-cigarettes convert the liquid solution to an aerosol, and thus the levels of ingredients, that are delivered to the user and the surrounding air for any given liquid.[22] First-generation e-cigarettes use lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39]

Second-generation PV.

Second generation devices tend to be used by people with more experience.[12] They are larger overall and look less like tobacco cigarettes.[12] They usually consist of two sections, basically a tank and a separate battery. Their batteries have higher capacity, and are not removable.[10] Being rechargeable, they use a USB charger that attaches to the battery with a threaded connector. Some batteries have a "passthrough" feature so they can be used even while they are charging.[40][41]

Second-generation e-cigarettes commonly use a tank or a "clearomizer".[12] Clearomizer tanks are meant to be refilled with e-juice, while cartomizers are not.[10] Because they're refillable and the battery is rechargeable, their cost of operation is lower.[10] Hovever, they can also use cartomizers, which are pre-filled only.[10]

Some cheaper battery sections use a microphone that detects the turbulence of the air passing through to activate the device when the user inhales.[42] Other batteries like the eGo style can use an integrated circuit, as well as a button for manual activation. The LED shows battery status.[42] The power button can also switch off the battery so it is not activated accidentally.[43] Second generation e-cigarettes may have lower voltages, around 3.7 V.[39] However, adjustable-voltage devices can be set between 3 V and 6 V.[44]

Third-generation PV.

The third-generation includes mechanical mods and variable voltage devices.[45][46] Battery sections are commonly called "mods," referencing their past when user modification was common.[10] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46] They are commonly cylindrical or box-shaped, and typical housing materials are wood, aluminium, stainless steel, or brass.[47] A larger "box mod" can hold bigger and sometimes multiple batteries.[47]

Mechanical mods and variable devices use larger batteries than those found in previous generations.[48] Common battery sizes used are 18350, 18490, 18500 and 18650.[49] The battery is often removable,[46] so it can be changed when depleted. The battery must be removed and charged externally.[46]

Variable devices permit setting wattage, voltage, or both.[40][46] These often have a USB connector for recharging; some can be used while charging, called a "passthrough" feature.[40][50] Mechanical mods do not contain integrated circuits.[46]

The power section may include additional options such as screen readout, support for a wide range of internal batteries, and compatibility with different types of atomizers.[12] Third-generation devices can have rebuildable atomizers with different wicking materials.[10][12] These rebuildables use handmade coils that can be installed in the atomizer to increase vapor production.[48] Hardware in this generation is sometimes modified to increase power or flavor.[51]

The larger battery sections used also allow larger tanks to be attached that can hold more e-liquid.[47] Recent devices can go up to 8 V, which can heat the e-liquid significantly more than earlier generations.[39]

A fourth-generation e-cigarette became available in the U.S. in 2014.[21] Fourth-generation e-cigarettes can be made from stainless steel and pyrex glass, and contain very little plastics.[13] Included in the fourth-generation are Sub ohm tanks and temperature control devices.[13]

An e-cigarette atomizer with the coil (heating element) in view.

An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and a wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil.[3] Along with a battery and e-liquid the atomizer is the main component of every personal vaporizer.[12] A small length of resistance wire is coiled around the wicking material and connected to the integrated circuit, or in the case of mechanical devices, the atomizer is connected directly to the battery through either a 510, 808, or ego threaded connector.[52] 510 being the most common.[52] When activated, the resistance wire coil heats up and vaporizes the liquid, which is then inhaled by the user.[53]

The electrical resistance of the coil, the voltage output of the device, the airflow of the atomizer and the efficiency of the wick all affect the vapor coming from the atomizer.[54] They also affect the vapor quantity or volume yielded.[54]

Atomizer coils made of kanthal usually have resistances that vary from 0.4Ω (ohms) to 2.8Ω.[54] Coils of lower ohms have increased vapor production but could risk fire and dangerous battery failures if the user is not knowledgeable enough about electrical principles and how they relate to battery safety.[55]

Wicking materials vary from one atomizer to another.[56] "Rebuildable" or "do it yourself" atomizers can use silica, cotton, rayon, porous ceramic, hemp, bamboo yarn, oxidized stainless steel mesh and even wire rope cables as wicking materials.[56]

A 45mm length, extra-long cartomizer.

The cartomizer was invented in 2007, integrating the heating coil into the liquid chamber.[57] A "cartomizer" (a portmanteau of cartridge and atomizer.[58]) or "carto" consists of an atomizer surrounded by a liquid-soaked poly-foam that acts as an e-liquid holder.[3] They can have up to 3 coils and each coil will increase vapor production.[3] The cartomizer is usually discarded when the e-liquid starts to taste burnt, which usually happens when the e-cigarette is activated with a dry coil or when the cartomizer gets consistently flooded (gurgling) because of sedimentation of the wick.[3] Most cartomizers are refillable even if not advertised as such.[3][59]

Cartomizers can be used on their own or in conjunction with a tank that allows more e-liquid capacity.[3] The portmanteau word "cartotank" has been coined for this.[60] When used in a tank, the cartomizer is inserted in a plastic, glass or metal tube and holes or slots have to be punched on the sides of the cartomizer so liquid can reach the coil.[3]

eGo style e-cigarette with a top-coil clearomizer. Silica fibers are hanging down freely inside of the tank, drawing e-liquid by capillary action to the coil that is located directly under the mouthpiece.

The clearomizer was invented in 2009 that originated from the cartomizer design.[57] It contained the wicking material, an e-liquid chamber, and an atomizer coil within a single clear component.[57] This allows the user to monitor the liquid level in the device.[57] Clearomizers or "clearos", are like cartotanks, in that an atomizer is inserted into the tank.[61] There are different wicking systems used inside clearomizers.[3] Some rely on gravity to bring the e-liquid to the wick and coil assembly (bottom coil clearomizers for example) and others rely on capillary action or to some degree the user agitating the e-liquid while handling the clearomizer (top coil clearomizers).[3][62] The coil and wicks are typically inside a prefabricated assembly or "head" that is replaceable by the user.[63]

Clearomizers are made with adjustable air flow control.[64] Tanks can be plastic or borosilicate glass.[65] Some flavors of e-juice have been known to damage plastic clearomizer tanks.[65]

Box mod e-cigarette fitted with a rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA). A view of the RDA deck showing the wicks and coils, juice is dripped into a hopper where the wicks rest as well as atop the coil assembly.

A rebuildable atomizer or an RBA is an atomizer that allows the user to assemble or "build" the wick and coil themselves instead of replacing them with off-the-shelf atomizer "heads".[10] They are generally considered advanced devices.[66] They also allow the user to build atomizers at any desired electrical resistance.[10]

These atomizers are divided into two main categories; rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) and rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs).[67]

Rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) have a tank to hold liquid that is absorbed by the wick.[68] They can hold up to 4ml of e-liquid.[69] The tank can be either plastic, glass, or metal.[65] One form of tank atomizers was the Genesis style atomizers.[68] They can use ceramic wicks, stainless steel mesh or rope for wicking material.[68] The steel wick must be oxidized to prevent arcing of the coil.[68] Another type is the Sub ohm tank.[69] These tanks have rebuildabe or RBA kits.[69] They can also use coilheads of 0.2ohm 0.4hom and 0.5ohm.[69] These coilheads can have stainless steel coils.[70]

Rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs) are atomizers where the e-juice is dripped directly onto the coil and wick.[71] The common nicotine strength of e-liquids used in RDA's is 3 mg and 6 mg.[71] Liquids used in RDA's tend to have more vegetable glycerin.[71] They typically consist only of an atomizer "building deck", commonly with three posts with holes drilled in them, which can accept one or more coils.[51] The user needs to manually keep the atomizer wet by dripping liquid on the bare wick and coil assembly, hence their name.[71]

Kanthal wire is commonly used in both RDA's and RTA's.[71] They can also use nickel wire or titanium wire for temperature control.[71]

Variable devices are variable wattage, variable voltage or both.[40][46] Variable power and/or variable voltage have a electronic chip allowing the user to adjust the power applied to the heating element.[12][46] The amount of power applied to the coil affects the heat produced, thus changing the vapor output.[12][32] Greater heat from the coil increases vapor production.[32] Variable power devices monitor the coil's resistance and automatically adjust the voltage to apply the user-specified level of power to the coil.[72] Recent devices can go up to 8 V.[39]

They are often rectangular but can also be cylindrical.[47] They usually have a screen to show information such as voltage, power, and resistance of the coil.[73] To adjust the settings, the user presses buttons or rotates a dial to turn the power up or down.[32] Some of these devices include additional settings through their menu system such as: atomizer resistance meter, remaining battery voltage, puff counter, and power-off or lock.[74] The power source is the biggest component of an e-cigarette,[14] which is frequently a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.[4] Smaller devices contain smaller batteries and are easier to carry but typically require more repeated recharging.[4] Some e-cigarettes use a long lasting rechargeable battery, a non-rechargeable battery or a replaceable battery that is either rechargeable or non-rechargeable for power.[26] Some companies offer portable chargeable cases to recharge e-cigarettes.[26] Nickel-cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal-hydride (NiMh), lithium ion (Li-ion), alkaline and lithium polymer (Li-poly), and lithium manganese (LiMn) batteries have been used for the e-cigarettes power source.[26]

PV with variable and regulated power offering battery protection.

Temperature control devices allow the user to set the temperature.[71] There is a predictable change to the resistance of a coil when it is heated.[75] The resistance changes are different for different types of wires, and must have a high temperature coefficient of resistance.[75] Temperature control is done by detecting that resistance change to estimate the temperature and adjusting the voltage to the coil to match that estimate.[76]

Nickel, titanium, NiFe alloys, and certain grades of stainless steel are common materials used for wire in temperature control.[71] The most common wire used, kanthal, cannot be used because it has a stable resistance regardless of the coil temperature.[75] Nickel was the first wire used because of it has the highest coefficient of the common metals.[75]

Mechanical PV with a rebuildable atomizer.

The temperature can be adjusted in Celsius or Fahrenheit.[77] The DNA40 and SX350J are common control boards used in temperature control devices.[78] Temperature control can stop dry wicks from burning, or e-liquid overheating.[78]

Mechanical PVs or mechanical "mods", often called "mechs", are devices without integrated circuits, electronic battery protection, or voltage regulation.[46] They are activated by a switch.[71] They rely on the natural voltage output of the battery and the metal that the mod is made of often is used as part of the circuit itself.[79]

The term "mod" was originally used instead of "modification".[10] Users would modify existing hardware to get better performance, and as an alternative to the e-cigarettes that looked like traditional cigarettes.[32] Users would also modify other unrelated items like flashlights as battery compartments to power atomizers.[32][47] The word mod is often used to describe most personal vaporizers.[3]

Mechanical PVs have no power regulation and are unprotected.[71] Because of this ensuring that the battery does not over-discharge and that the resistance of the atomizer requires amperage within the safety limits of the battery is the responsibility of the user.[79]


 

Uk E Liquid Free Delivery UK