E-cigs vs. T-cigs
Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful in the UK than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use ecigs? Will they fill your body with plastic?
Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.
Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.
Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.
UK Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquid
[Thorpe] Welcometo Beyond the Data.
Phoebe Thorpe, and herewith me today is Dr.
Brian King from CDC's Office onSmoking and Health.
Thank you for joining us Brian.
[King] Thanks somuch for having me.
It's a pleasure to be here.
[Thorpe] Our topictoday is E-cigarettes.
Can you tell us why they areconsidered a tobacco product? [King] Yes, so in the UnitedStates we regulate tobacco products through the US Foodand Drug Administration, and the way they describe atobacco product is any product that's made or derivedfrom tobacco.
And we know that the vastmajority of nicotine that's used in tobacco products,including e-cigarettes, is indeed derived from tobacco.
So since these productscontain nicotine, we consider them a tobaccoproduct in the United States.
[Thorpe] And E-cigarettesare little bit different than regular cigarettes.
Can you describe how they work? [King] Yeah, so E-cigarettes isshort for electronic cigarettes, but we know them by alot of different names.
And they can be calledthings like vapor products, hookah pens, vape pens, butthe bottom line is they're all really the same product.
And they work by containinga liquid that's heated which the user then inhales intotheir lungs, and it's important to note that this isn'ttechnically a vapor which is how peoplefrequently refer to.
It's actually an aerosol thatcontains small particles as well as various other ingredientsthat the user inhales, and so there's no combustion.
You're not burning anything, butthere is a heating of the liquid which turns into an aerosolwhich the user inhales.
And they can alsoexhale into the air as other bystandersare around them.
[Thorpe] And the aerosolis not just water vapor.
I mean, that's animportant part to understand because I get asked as aphysician about E-cigarettes, and the thing from the session that I found veryinteresting was the idea that were not reallycertain about the risks that flavorings addto E-cigarettes.
The one that was mentioned wasthe butter flavoring Diacetyl that has been associatedwith bronchiolitis obliterans or what's called popcorn lung,which is a deadly disease.
What more do we know aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes? [King] So our knowledgeabout what's contained in both the E-cigaretteliquid as well as the aerosol hascontinued to evolve over time that these products enteredthe United States marketplace in around 2007.
They didn't really start touptick in use until 2010, 2011.
But, since that time, we reallyincreased the amount of research into what these productscontain.
And what we can say isthat the aerosol admitted by these productsis not harmless.
We do know that the ingredients and the levels aresignificantly less dangerous than conventional cigarettes,but that doesn't mean that they're completelyrisk-free.
And so, some of theingredients we found in the E-cigaretteaerosol are things like ultrafine particulatethat can be inhaled very deep into the lungs, and alsoheavy metals that are found in the filaments of the deviceand are omitted in the aerosol, as well as, things likevolatile organic compounds.
But one of the most commoningredients is nicotine, and we know that nicotineis highly addictive.
But there's alsoevidence indicating that it can harm thedeveloping adolescent brain which really makes itimportant for youth to avoid these devices.
In addition to some of theseother harmful ingredients, we also know the flavorings.
And so, Diacetyl is justone, but there are a variety of different flavoringsthat are used that, although they may be safe toingest in things like food, we don't know what the risks are for inhaling thesedevices into the lungs.
You know, your gut can handlea lot more than your lungs, and that's reallyimportant when we look at the ingredientsin these products.
And finally, it's alsoimportant to remember that people are using a lotof things in E-cigarettes, and that includes otherpsychoactive substances like marijuana andTHC and others.
And so, when we are talkingabout youth in particular, the use of both the nicotinecontaining varieties as well as other varietiesfor other types of drugs are really apublic health concern.
But we have had somerecent good news about the youth meaningmiddle school and high school useof E-cigarettes.
Can you tell me about that? [King] Yes.
It's really a commendablepublic health accomplishment.
We started assessing E-cigaretteuse among youth in this country in 2011, and through 2015,we saw exponential increases in the use of this product.
And 2016 was the first time that we actually saw declineamong youth in this country, and that was really a resultof the coordinated efforts to not only educate thepublic about the harms of youth E-cigarette use but also implementingcommon sense strategies to not only prevent youth accessbut also to protect people from the aerosol andpublic environments and various other campaigns to educate peopleabout these products.
But, on balance, the badnews is that we still have over 2 million youth thatare using E-cigarettes, and they're now the mostcommonly used tobacco products used among US youth.
So we made great progress,but we really need to continue that momentum toreduce all forms of tobacco productuse among youth.
[Thorpe] So it's going down, butnot as lot much as we'd like.
So what's driving the use ofthe E-cigarettes in teens? [King] So there's avariety of factors that we believe are contributingto these increased rates of use among youth thatwe saw through 2015.
One of the most notable is theadvertising for these products.
We know that many of the themesand tactics that have been used to advertise conventionalcigarettes are frequently used for E-cigarettes.
And we also know thatthere's some media of for which conventional cigaretteadvertising is banned that is allowed forE-cigarettes.
Things like television.
And so, there's reallya prominent advertising of these products, and we know that it's reachingkids in particular.
About 18 million US youthreported being exposed to E-cigarette ads in 2014.
Another factor isflavorings, and we know, from the existing science, that flavorings can beparticularly appealing in terms of enticing youth and youngadults to use tobacco products.
And a variety of E-cigarettesare flavored, and we know, from the existing data, thatabout two thirds of youth who use these cigarettes reportusing flavored varieties, and flavors are the mostcommonly cited reason for why youth startedusing these products.
And so, in the end, wereally have a situation where you know the advertisingis bringing the horse to water.
The flavorings aregetting them to drink, and then the nicotine is keepingthem coming back for more.
And so, it's kind of aperfect storm in terms of the youth rates of this use.
But the good news is, we knowwhat works to prevent that.
And if we implement those commonsense public health strategies, we can continue to seethe declines that we saw within the past yearamong our nation's youth.
[Thorpe] And the realconcern is about nicotine and the teenage brain.
Can you just briefly tell mea little bit more about that? [King] Yeah.
So nicotine is found in thevast majority of E-cigarettes that are sold on the U.
marketand, you know, nicotine we use in things like nicotinereplacement therapy among adults.
And it can be, youknow, an effective drug to help people quitconventional cigarette smoking.
But it's important to note thatthose are in very measured doses and weans the individual off of conventional cigarettesover time.
But nicotine is notnecessarily risk-free.
Particularly forvulnerable populations.
We know that nicotineis highly addictive, but there's also a growingbody of scientific evidence that was outlined in a recentSurgeon General's Report noting that nicotine exposure can harmthe developing adolescent brain.
And we know that thebrain continues to develop into young adulthood upthrough 25 or 26, and so, there's really implicationsfor not only youth use of these products butalso young adult use of any nicotine containingproduct.
And another thing to remember with nicotine is it'salso been shown to result in adverse health outcomesamong pregnant women in particularly fetal toxicity.
So there's also implications about pregnant womenusing any form of nicotine containing product,and so, it's really important for them to talk with theirphysician before they use any type of nicotine containingproduct including E-cigarettes.
[Thorpe] So is there a placethat physicians could go to learn a little bitmore about these parts with the E-cigarettesand the nicotine? [King] So there's many resourcesthat have been developed over the past fewyears, particularly as the sciences begun to grow.
And we have, you know,more concrete evidence about what works effectivelyto help warn people about these products and alsoprovide them scientific-based information to makeinformed decisions.
And in 2016, the U.
SurgeonGeneral released a landmark report on E-cigarette useamong youth and young adults.
And as part of therelease of that report, there were severalmaterials including resources and provider cards to helphealth professionals really communicate to both childrenand adults about these products.
And so, in the context of youth, it really enforces theimportance of warning them about the dangersof these products.
Particularly with regardto the nicotine content.
And among adults, it's amore nuanced conversation about knowing that we dohave FDA approved medications to help people quit, and thoseshould really be the first line of defense to help you quit.
And if that doesn't work, youcan consider E-cigarettes, but in consultation withyour healthcare provider.
And right now, based onthe evidence we have, there is no conclusive evidencethat E-cigarettes are effective for long-term cessation, andso, it's really important to use those resources thatwe know are most effective to help you quitand in coordination with your healthcare provider.
[Thorpe] And then foryouth, where if parents or other adults wanted to knowmore about how they could talk to teens and young adults aboutthe risks of E-cigarettes, where would they find someinformation about that? [King] So as part of the releaseof the Surgeon General's Report, there's an excellent interactivewebsite that was coordinated with the release of that report, and it isE-cigarettes.
And it has a varietyof information on both the reportitself as well as a public service announcementas well as informational cards for both parents andclinicians to educate our youth and young adults in particularabout the dangers and risks of using these products.
[Thorpe] That sounds like anexcellent place for our viewers to go and see whatthey can find out.
Thank you very muchfor joining us.
[King] Thank you verymuch for having me.
[Thorpe] And thankyou for joining us.
See you next monthon Beyond the Data.
(Redirected from E-liquid) Aerosol (vapor) exhaled by an e-cigarette user.
Construction of electronic cigarettes UK
The aerosol of electronic cigarettes is generated when the e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100–250 °C within a chamber. The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke. The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking. In physics, a vapor is a substance in the gas phase whereas an aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid or both within a gas. Vapor from an electronic cigarette simulates tobacco smoke, but the process of burning tobacco does not occur. The aerosol is made-up of liquid sub-micron particles of condensed vapor, which mostly consist of propylene glycol, glycerol, water, flavorings, nicotine, and other chemicals. The various chemicals in the aerosol give rise to many issues concerning the safety of electronic cigarettes that have been much discussed. After a puff, inhalation of the aerosol travels from the device into the mouth and lungs. A 2014 review found that the particles emitted by e-cigarettes are comparable in size and number to particles in cigarette smoke, with the majority of them in the ultrafine range. The particles are of the ultrafine size which can go deep in the lungs and then into the systemic circulation. A 2014 review said local pulmonary toxicity may occur because metal nanoparticles can deposit in the lungs. Others show that the quantities of metals emitted are minimal and permissible by medicinal standards.Various bottles of e-liquid.
After the aerosol is inhaled, it is exhaled. Emissions from electronic cigarettes are not comparable to environmental pollution or cigarette smoke as their nature and chemical composition are completely different. The particles are larger, with the mean size being 600 nm in inhaled aerosol and 300 nm in exhaled vapor. Bystanders are exposed to these particles from exhaled e-cigarette vapor. There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor exhaled by e-cigarette users can be inhaled by bystanders, particularly indoors, and have significant adverse effects. Since e-cigarettes involve an aerosolization process, it is suggested that no meaningful amounts of carbon monoxide are emitted. Thus, cardiocirculatory effects caused by carbon monoxide are not likely. E-cigarette use by an expectant parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring. E-cigarettes pose many safety concerns to children. For example, indoor surfaces can accumulate nicotine where e-cigarettes were used, which may be inhaled by children, particularly youngsters, long after they were used.
E-liquid is the mixture used in vapor products such as electronic cigarettes. The main ingredients in the e-liquid usually are propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings. However, there are e-liquids sold without propylene glycol, nicotine, or flavors. The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin. Propylene glycol and glycerine are used to produce the vapor while the flavoring provides the taste and aroma. The flavorings may be natural or artificial. About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014. There are many e-liquids manufacturers in the USA and worldwide. While there are currently no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid, the FDA has proposed regulations that were expected to be finalized in late 2015. Industry standards have been created and published by the American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA).
The vapor can contain nicotine and usually contains vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, flavors and aroma transporters. The nicotine levels in the vapor varies either from puff-to-puff or among products of the same company. A 2015 report commissioned by Public Health England concluded that e-cigarettes "release negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air". E-cigarettes without nicotine are also available. The vapor may also contain tiny amounts of toxicants, carcinogens, and heavy metals. Contamination with various chemicals has been identified. E-cigarette makers do not fully disclose information on the chemicals that can be released or synthesized during use. The metals have been found in trace amounts in the vapor, some of them at higher amounts than in cigarette smoke. The peak concentration of nicotine delivered by e-cigarette use is comparable to that produced by conventional cigarette smoking.An example of a commercial e-liquid and an advanced personal vaporizer.
E-liquid, e-fluid, or e-juice is the mixture used in vapor products including e-cigarettes. E-Liquids come in many variations, including different nicotine strengths and many different flavors. The main ingredients are propylene glycol, glycerine, and flavorings; and most often, nicotine in liquid form. The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin, and the remaining 5% being flavorings and nicotine. E-liquid can be made with or without nicotine, with >90% of e-liquids containing some level of nicotine. The most regularly used base carrier chemical is propylene glycol with or without glycerin. E-liquid containing glycerin and water made without propylene glycol are also sold. Unless clearly stated, it is uncertain whether the nicotine used in e-liquid is manufactured using a United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade nicotine, a tobacco plant extract, tobacco dust or a synthetic nicotine. Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers. Although some e-juice is nicotine-free, surveys demonstrate that 97% of responders use products that contain nicotine. A 2015 review suggests that 1% of users use liquid without nicotine.
The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a battery, and possibly a LED light on the end. An atomizer comprises a small heating element that vaporizes e-liquid and wicking material that draws liquid onto the coil. When the user pushes a button. or inhales a pressure sensor activates the heating element that atomizes the liquid solution; The e-liquid reaches a temperature of roughly 100–250 °C within a chamber to create an aerosolized vapor. The user inhales the aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke. The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking. However, variable voltage devices can raise the temperature where the user adjusts the vapor. The vapor contains similar chemicals to the e-liquid which vary in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers.
E-cigarettes produce particles, in the form of an aerosol. In physics, a vapor is a substance in the gas phase whereas an aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid or both within a gas. The aerosol is made-up of liquid sub-micron particles of condensed vapor, which mostly consist of propylene glycol, glycerol, water, flavorings, nicotine, and other chemicals. This aerosol that is produces resembles cigarette smoke. After a puff, inhalation of the aerosol travels from the device into the mouth and lungs.
A 2014 review found that the particles emitted by e-cigarettes are comparable in size and number to particles in cigarette smoke, with the majority of them in the ultrafine range. The ultrafine particles can go deep in the lungs and then into the systemic circulation. Pulmonary toxicity may occur because metal nanoparticles can deposit in the lungs. The review also found that fine particles can be chemically intricate and not uniform, and what a particle is made of, the exact harmful elements, and the importance of the size of the particle is mostly unknown. They found that because these things are uncertain, it is not clear whether the ultrafine particles in e-cigarette vapor have health effects similar to those produced by traditional cigarettes.
A 2014 WHO report found e-cigarettes release a lower level of particles than traditional cigarettes. Comparable to a traditional cigarette, e-cigarette particles are tiny enough to enter the alveoli, enabling nicotine absorption. E-cigarettes companies assert that the particulates produced by an e-cigarette are too tiny to be deposited in the alveoli. Exactly what comprises the vapor varies in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers. Different devices generate different particle sizes and cause different depositions in the respiratory tract, even from the same nicotine liquid. Reports in the literature have shown respiratory and cardiovascular effects by these smaller size particles, suggesting a possible health concern.
After the aerosol is inhaled, it is exhaled. Emissions from electronic cigarettes are not comparable to environmental pollution or cigarette smoke as their nature and chemical composition are completely different. The particles are larger, with the mean size being 600 nm in inhaled aerosol and 300 nm in exhaled vapor. The exhaled aerosol particle concentration is 5 times lower from an e-cigarette than from a combustible tobacco cigarette. The density of particles in the vapor is lower than in cigarette smoke by a factor of between 6 and 880 times lower.
For particulate matter emissions, e-cigarettes slightly exceeded the WHO guidelines, but emissions were 15 times less than traditional cigarette use. In January 2014, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease stated "Adverse health effects for exposed third parties (second-hand exposure) cannot be excluded because the use of electronic cigarettes leads to emission of fine and ultrafine inhalable liquid particles, nicotine and cancer-causing substances into indoor air." The dense vapor consists of liquid sub-micron droplets.[dead link]
Since e-cigarettes have not been widely used long enough for evaluation, the long-term health effects from the second-hand vapor are not known. There is insufficient data to determine the impact on public health from e-cigarettes. The potential harm to bystanders from e-cigarettes is unknown. This is because no long-term data is available.
Since e-cigarettes do not burn (or contain) tobacco, no side-stream smoke or any cigarette smoke is produced. Only what is exhaled by e-cigarettes users enters the surrounding air. Exhaled vapor consists of nicotine and some other particles, primarily consisting of flavors, aroma transporters, glycerin and propylene glycol. Bystanders are exposed to these particles from exhaled e-cigarette vapor. A mixture of harmful substances, particularly nicotine, ultrafine particles, and volatile organic compounds can be exhaled into the air. The liquid particles condenses into a viewable fog. The vapor is in the air for a short time, with a half-life of about 10 seconds; traditional cigarette smoke is in the air 100 times longer. This is because of fast revaporization at room temperature.
There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor exhaled by e-cigarette users can be inhaled by bystanders, particularly indoors, and have significant adverse effects. Since e-cigarettes involve an aerosolization process, it is suggested that no meaningful amounts of carbon monoxide are emitted. Thus, cardiocirculatory effects caused by carbon monoxide are not likely. However, in an experimental study, e-cigarettes increased levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surrounding air.
E-cigarettes used in indoor environments can put at risk nonsmokers to elevated levels of nicotine and aerosol emissions. Nonsmokers exposed to e-cigarette aerosol produced by a machine and pumped into a room were found to have detectable levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in their blood. The same study stated that 80% of nicotine is normally absorbed by the user, so these results may be higher than in actual second hand exposure. In 2015 a report commissioned by Public Health England concluded that e-cigarettes "release negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air with no identified health risks to bystanders".
A 2014 review of limited data concluded this vapor can cause indoor air pollution and is not just water vapor as is frequently stated in the advertising of e-cigarettes. A 2014 practice guideline by NPS MedicineWise states, "Although data on health effects of passive vapour are currently lacking, the risks are argued to be small, but claims that e-cigarettes emit only water vapour are nevertheless incorrect. Serum cotinine levels (a metabolite of nicotine) have been found to be similar in bystanders exposed to either e-cigarette vapour or cigarette smoke." The 2015 California Department of Public Health has reported that "Mainstream and second hand e-cigarette aerosol has been found to contain at least ten chemicals that are on California's Proposition 65 list of chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm." However, it has been demonstrated that e-cigarettes causes nonusers to be exposed to nicotine but not to tobacco-related combustion toxicants.A no smoking or vaping sign from the US.
A white paper published in 2014 by the American Industrial Hygiene Association concluded e-cigarettes emit airborne contaminants that may be inhaled by the user and those nearby. They urged indoors restrictions similar to smoking bans, until research has shown the aerosol has no risk of harm. A 2014 review indicated that the levels of inhaled contaminants from the e-cigarette vapor are not of significant health concern for human exposures by the standards used in workplaces to ensure safety. The use of e-cigarettes in a smoke-free area could expose non-users to toxins. The effect on bystanders would likely be much less harmful than traditional cigarettes.
2014 WHO report stated passive exposure was as a concern, indicating that current evidence is insufficient to determine whether the levels of exhaled vapor are safe to involuntarily exposed bystanders. The report stated that "it is unknown if the increased exposure to toxicants and particles in exhaled aerosol will lead to an increased risk of disease and death among bystanders." The British Medical Association (BMA) reported in 2013 that there are "concerns that the use of e-cigarettes could threaten the norm of not smoking in public places and workplaces."
As of 2013[update], the only clinical study currently published evaluating the respiratory effects of passive vaping found no adverse effects were detected. A 2014 review found it is safe to infer that their effects on bystanders are minimal in comparison to traditional cigarettes. A E-cigarette vapor has notably fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke and is likely to pose less harm to users or bystanders.
E-cigarette use by a parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring. E-cigarettes pose many safety concerns to children. For example, indoor surfaces can accumulate nicotine where e-cigarettes were used, which may be inhaled by children, particularly youngsters, long after they were used. A policy statement by the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology has reported that "Third-hand exposure occurs when nicotine and other chemicals from second-hand aerosol deposit on surfaces, exposing people through touch, ingestion, and inhalation". Public health England, looking at the available research said the amount of nicotine deposited was low and that an infant would have to lick 30 square meters to be exposed to 1 mg of nicotine. The statement noted there are no published studies of third hand exposure from e-cigarettes, however initial data suggests that nicotine from e-cigarettes may stick to surfaces and would be hard to remove.
The e-liquid is sold in bottles or pre-filled disposable cartridges, or as a kit for consumers to make their own e-juices. Some vendors of e-liquids, offer options to change the amounts of flavorings or nicotine strengths, and build each bottle customized for the purchaser. E-liquids are made with various tobacco, fruit, and other flavors, as well as variable nicotine concentrations (including nicotine-free versions). The standard notation "mg/ml" is often used on labels to denote nicotine concentration, and is sometimes shortened to "mg". In surveys of regular e-cigarette users, the most popular e-liquids have a nicotine content of 18 mg/ml, and the preferred flavors were largely tobacco, mint and fruit. A cartridge may contain 0 to 20 mg of nicotine. EU regulations cap the concentration of nicotine in e-liquid at a maximum of 20 mg/mL. A refill bottle can contain up to 1 g of nicotine. Refill liquids are often sold in the size range from 15 to 30 mL. One cartridge may typically last as long as one pack of cigarettes. Some liquids without flavoring is also sold. The flavorings may be natural or artificial. There is even certified organic liquid. About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014. A user does not normally consume a whole cartridge in a single session. Most e-liquids are produced by a few manufacturers in China, the US and Europe. An e-cigarette user will usually obtain 300 to 500 puffs per mL of liquid.
The two most common e-liquid bases are propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG). Propylene glycol is tasteless and odorless, and therefore it doesn't affect the flavor of the e-liquid. It is known, however, to cause allergic reactions in some users, and in such case it is advised to stop the use immediately. Vegetable glycerin, on the other hand, is a lot thicker in consistency, and it doesn't cause allergic reactions. It also produces significantly more vapor, which has a slight sweet taste.[unreliable source?]
E-liquids are manufactured by many producers, both in the US and across the world. First tier manufacturers use lab suits, gloves, hair covers, inside of certified clean rooms with air filtration similar to pharmaceutical-grade production areas.
Standards for e-liquid manufacturing have been created by American E-liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA), which is trade association dedicated to creating responsible and sustainable standards for the safe manufacturing of e-liquids used in vapor products. AEMSA has published a comprehensive list standards and best known methods, which are openly available for use by any manufacturer of e-Liquids. The AEMSA standards cover nicotine, ingredients, sanitary manufacturing rooms, safety packaging, age restrictions, and labeling.
There are no current governmental or US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid. The FDA has sought to regulate e-liquid through use of the Tobacco Control Act, passed into law in 2009. In April 2014, the FDA issued its "Deeming" proposals for public comment, which would cover e-liquids manufacturing. The Final Rule, (in final form) giving the FDA authority to regulate e-liquids was released on May 5th 2016.